The molecular changes associated with early skin carcinogenesis are largely unknown. We have previously identified 11 genes whose expression was up- or down-regulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mouse skin keratinocyte progenitor cells (Wei, S.-J., Trempus, C. S., Cannon, R. E., Bortner, C. D., and Tennant, R. W. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 1758-1768). Here, we show an induction of a nucleoside diphosphate protein kinase B (NDPK-B) gene in response to TPA or UV radiation (UVR). TPA or UVR significantly induced the expression of NDPK-B both in vivo hyperplastic mouse skin and in vitro mouse JB6 Cl 41-5a epidermal cells. Indeed, this gene was also up-regulated in TPA or UVR-mediated skin tumors including papillomas, spindle cell tumors, and squamous cell carcinomas, relative to adjacent normal skins. Functional studies by constitutive expression of nm23-M2/NDPK-B in TPA susceptible JB6 Cl 41-5a and TPA-resistant JB6 Cl 30-7b preneoplastic epidermal cell lines showed a remarkable gene dosage-dependent increase in foci-forming activity, as well as an enhancement in the efficiency of neoplastic transfomation of these cells in soft agar but no effect on proliferation in monolayer cultures. Interestingly, stable transfection of the nm23-M2/NDPK-B delRGD or G106A mutant gene in JB6 Cl 41-5a cells selectively abrogated NDPK-B-induced cellular transformation, implicating a possible Arg105-Gly106-Asp107 regulatory role in early skin carcinogenesis.
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