The incidence of reflux-related esophageal disease - Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma - is rising, and the prognosis remains poor. Evidence exists that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D may augment the course of colon, breast and prostate cancer but little knowledge exists regarding its impact on disease of the esophagus. Important immune cells involved in reflux-related esophageal disease include CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, and key signaling pathways include Wnt, Hedgehog, NFκ-B and IL-6-JAK-STAT. There is an inter-relationship between these entities and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which has been described in animal models and some human tissue. Despite this, there is an incomplete understanding of how the immune cell population and signaling pathways contribute to the course and prognosis of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. More investigation with a focus on the clinical outcomes of patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma and the immune cell population and cell signaling activity in the diseased esophagus is necessary to determine the immunomodulatory role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the pathogenesis of esophageal diseases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy