Adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance are two hallmark sequelae attributed to the current clinical definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) that are also linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here, we critically discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the interplay between the two sequelae. Adipokine dysregulation is involved with decreased nitric oxide, vascular inflammation, and insulin resistance in itself to promote atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is involved with endothelial dysfunction by direct and indirect mechanisms that also promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. These mechanisms are discussed in atherosclerosis irrespective of MetS, and to evaluate the possibility of synergism in MetS. High retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and low cholesterol efflux in MetS may provide evidence of possible synergism and elevated atherosclerotic risk. An adverse adipokine panel that includes fetuin-A and adiponectin can potentially assess atherosclerotic risk in even those without MetS. Genetic possibilities may exist in atherosclerotic vascular diseases secondary to insulin resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine