Adipokine Dysregulation and Insulin Resistance with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: Metabolic Syndrome or Independent Sequelae?

Mohan Satish, Shailendra K. Saxena, Devendra K. Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance are two hallmark sequelae attributed to the current clinical definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) that are also linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here, we critically discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the interplay between the two sequelae. Adipokine dysregulation is involved with decreased nitric oxide, vascular inflammation, and insulin resistance in itself to promote atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is involved with endothelial dysfunction by direct and indirect mechanisms that also promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. These mechanisms are discussed in atherosclerosis irrespective of MetS, and to evaluate the possibility of synergism in MetS. High retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and low cholesterol efflux in MetS may provide evidence of possible synergism and elevated atherosclerotic risk. An adverse adipokine panel that includes fetuin-A and adiponectin can potentially assess atherosclerotic risk in even those without MetS. Genetic possibilities may exist in atherosclerotic vascular diseases secondary to insulin resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Adipokines
Vascular Diseases
Insulin Resistance
Atherosclerosis
alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein
Inflammation
Retinol-Binding Proteins
Adiponectin
Vascular Resistance
Blood Vessels
Nitric Oxide
Cholesterol

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

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title = "Adipokine Dysregulation and Insulin Resistance with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: Metabolic Syndrome or Independent Sequelae?",
abstract = "Adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance are two hallmark sequelae attributed to the current clinical definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) that are also linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here, we critically discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the interplay between the two sequelae. Adipokine dysregulation is involved with decreased nitric oxide, vascular inflammation, and insulin resistance in itself to promote atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is involved with endothelial dysfunction by direct and indirect mechanisms that also promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. These mechanisms are discussed in atherosclerosis irrespective of MetS, and to evaluate the possibility of synergism in MetS. High retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and low cholesterol efflux in MetS may provide evidence of possible synergism and elevated atherosclerotic risk. An adverse adipokine panel that includes fetuin-A and adiponectin can potentially assess atherosclerotic risk in even those without MetS. Genetic possibilities may exist in atherosclerotic vascular diseases secondary to insulin resistance.",
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AU - Saxena, Shailendra K.

AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.

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N2 - Adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance are two hallmark sequelae attributed to the current clinical definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) that are also linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here, we critically discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the interplay between the two sequelae. Adipokine dysregulation is involved with decreased nitric oxide, vascular inflammation, and insulin resistance in itself to promote atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is involved with endothelial dysfunction by direct and indirect mechanisms that also promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. These mechanisms are discussed in atherosclerosis irrespective of MetS, and to evaluate the possibility of synergism in MetS. High retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and low cholesterol efflux in MetS may provide evidence of possible synergism and elevated atherosclerotic risk. An adverse adipokine panel that includes fetuin-A and adiponectin can potentially assess atherosclerotic risk in even those without MetS. Genetic possibilities may exist in atherosclerotic vascular diseases secondary to insulin resistance.

AB - Adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance are two hallmark sequelae attributed to the current clinical definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) that are also linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here, we critically discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the interplay between the two sequelae. Adipokine dysregulation is involved with decreased nitric oxide, vascular inflammation, and insulin resistance in itself to promote atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is involved with endothelial dysfunction by direct and indirect mechanisms that also promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. These mechanisms are discussed in atherosclerosis irrespective of MetS, and to evaluate the possibility of synergism in MetS. High retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and low cholesterol efflux in MetS may provide evidence of possible synergism and elevated atherosclerotic risk. An adverse adipokine panel that includes fetuin-A and adiponectin can potentially assess atherosclerotic risk in even those without MetS. Genetic possibilities may exist in atherosclerotic vascular diseases secondary to insulin resistance.

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