Heart failure is a symptom complex of varied etiology associated with substantial mortality. Approximately 5 million Americans have the disease, with 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year. DeSpite better understanding of its pathophysiology, therapeutic options remain suboptimal and the syndrome remains associated with high rates of hospitalization and loss of economic productivity. Management traditionally included vasodilators, diuretics, and digoxin, with a focus on controlling symptoms and improving ejection fraction and exercise capacity. Drug therapy now is focused on improving survival, with a reduction in health care costs related to hospitalizations. Drugs with a proven benefit in reducing morbidity and mortality are angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and the combination of hydralazine plus a nitrate. Diuretics, digoxin, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, catecholamine infusions, amiodarone, left ventricular assist devices, and transplantation are also options.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)