Advances in the treatment of congestive heart failure: New approaches for an old disease

Maryann Z. Skrabal, Julie A. Stading, Kathryn A. Behmer-Miller, Daniel E. Hilleman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Heart failure is a symptom complex of varied etiology associated with substantial mortality. Approximately 5 million Americans have the disease, with 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year. DeSpite better understanding of its pathophysiology, therapeutic options remain suboptimal and the syndrome remains associated with high rates of hospitalization and loss of economic productivity. Management traditionally included vasodilators, diuretics, and digoxin, with a focus on controlling symptoms and improving ejection fraction and exercise capacity. Drug therapy now is focused on improving survival, with a reduction in health care costs related to hospitalizations. Drugs with a proven benefit in reducing morbidity and mortality are angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and the combination of hydralazine plus a nitrate. Diuretics, digoxin, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, catecholamine infusions, amiodarone, left ventricular assist devices, and transplantation are also options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)787-804
Number of pages18
Issue number7 I
StatePublished - 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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