Background: The hypothesis that in subjects with aggressive periodontitis, a long-term stability of periodontal health can be achieved following comprehensive mechanical/surgical and systemic antimicrobial therapy was tested in this prospective study. Methods: Thirteen patients (36.9 ± 7.4 years) with aggressive periodontitis were monitored before and up to 5 years following periodontal therapy. Clinical attachment levels (CAL) were assessed pretherapy, and at 3 months following completion of active periodontal therapy supplemented by amoxicillin plus metronidazole. All subjects were subsequently enrolled in a maintenance program and provided with supportive periodontal therapy with 3 to 4 appointments annually. Reexaminations were performed after 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. The data were analyzed using the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) for CAL changes from baseline to the 3-month visit, and from completion of periodontal therapy to each annual visit up to the 5-year follow-up reappointment. Results: During the 5-year study, all subjects strongly benefited from periodontal treatment. Between baseline and the 3-month reexamination, the CAL levels revealed a significant decrease of 2.23 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77 to 2.69 mm; P ≤0.001). At the 5-year maintenance visit, the CAL changes ranged from -0.04 to +0.29 mm with no further statistically significant periodontal breakdown (P >0.05). Five years after surgery, 3.2% of the treated sites demonstrated a further CAL gain ≥3 mm. A stabilization (CAL -2 to +2 mm) occurred in 94.6% of the cases. The number of periodontal sites experiencing a breakdown varied from 5.3% at 6 months to 2.2% at 5 years. Conclusions: In aggressive periodontitis, comprehensive mechanical/surgical and antimicrobial therapy is an appropriate treatment regimen for long-term stabilization of periodontal health. In this study, periodontal disease progression was successfully arrested in 95% of the initially compromised lesions, while 2% to 5% experienced discrete or recurrent episodes of loss of periodontal support.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes