Importance: Treatment with aldosterone antagonists is recommended and has been shown to have beneficial effects in patients with ST-segment elevationmyocardial infarction (STEMI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40%. However, the role of aldosterone antagonists in patients with ejection fraction greater than 40% or without congestive heart failure is not well known. Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis using standard techniques to determine the role of therapy with aldosterone antagonists in this patient population. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central databases were searched and a manual search for relevant references from the selected articles and published reviews was performed from database inception through June 2017. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that evaluated treatment with aldosterone antagonists in patients with STEMI without clinical heart failure or LVEF greater than 40% were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were used to conduct and report the meta-analysis, which used a random-effects model. Two investigators independently performed the database search and agreed on the final study selection. A manual search was performed for relevant references from the selected articles and published reviews. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes analyzedwere mortality, new congestive heart failure, recurrentmyocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, and changes in LVEF, serum potassium level, and creatinine level at follow-up. Results: In all, 10 randomized clinical trials with a total of 4147 unique patients were included in the meta-analysis. In patients who presented with STEMI without heart failure, treatment with aldosterone antagonists compared with control was associated with lower risk of mortality (2.4%vs 3.9%; odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95%CI, 0.42-0.91; P = .01) and similar risks of myocardial infarction (1.6%vs 1.5%; OR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.57-1.86; P = .91), new congestive heart failure (4.3%vs 5.4%; OR, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.56-1.20; P = .31), and ventricular arrhythmia (4.1%vs 5.1%; OR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.45-1.31; P = .33). Similarly, treatment with aldosterone antagonists compared with controlwas associated with a small yet significant increase in LVEF (mean difference, 1.58%; 95%CI, 0.18%-2.97%; P = .03), a small increase in serum potassium level (mean difference, 0.07mEq/L; 95%CI, 0.01-0.13mEq/L; P = .02), and no change in serum creatinine level (standardized mean difference, 1.4; 95%CI, -0.43 to 3.24; P = .13). Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with aldosterone antagonists is associated with a mortality benefit in patients with STEMI with LVEF greater than 40% or without heart failure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine