The use of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics has declined over the past 15 years primarily due to comparable potency of other antimicrobials and the nephrotoxicity potential of AG drugs. However, resurgence in the use of AG antimicrobials is occurring due to multidrug-resistant gram-negative nosocomial infections. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates as well as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae continue to force clinicians to consider AG therapy for nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and enterococcal endocarditis. Additionally, AGs are still indicated in the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Along with the use of AG antibiotics is the associated renal insufficiency complication. This review discusses the mechanism for AG-induced nephrotoxicity. Patient- and drug-related risk factors are discussed to help identify patients at increased risk. The issue of serum-level monitoring is discussed relative to the development of nephrotoxicity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)