Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study

D. F. Short, V. Gilsanz, H. J. Kalkwarf, Joan M. Lappe, S. Oberfield, J. A. Shepherd, K. K. Winer, B. S. Zemel, T. N. Hangartner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Methods: We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined.

Results: At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model.

Summary: New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.

Introduction: Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable.

Conclusions: If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1099-1108
Number of pages10
JournalOsteoporosis International
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

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Bone Density
Adipose Tissue
Weights and Measures
Age Determination by Skeleton
Minerals
Hip
Bone and Bones
Forearm
Population
Reference Values
Spine
Head
Pediatrics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study. / Short, D. F.; Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, Joan M.; Oberfield, S.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.; Zemel, B. S.; Hangartner, T. N.

In: Osteoporosis International, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2015, p. 1099-1108.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Short, DF, Gilsanz, V, Kalkwarf, HJ, Lappe, JM, Oberfield, S, Shepherd, JA, Winer, KK, Zemel, BS & Hangartner, TN 2015, 'Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study', Osteoporosis International, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1099-1108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-014-2916-x
Short, D. F. ; Gilsanz, V. ; Kalkwarf, H. J. ; Lappe, Joan M. ; Oberfield, S. ; Shepherd, J. A. ; Winer, K. K. ; Zemel, B. S. ; Hangartner, T. N. / Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study. In: Osteoporosis International. 2015 ; Vol. 26, No. 3. pp. 1099-1108.
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AU - Gilsanz, V.

AU - Kalkwarf, H. J.

AU - Lappe, Joan M.

AU - Oberfield, S.

AU - Shepherd, J. A.

AU - Winer, K. K.

AU - Zemel, B. S.

AU - Hangartner, T. N.

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AB - Methods: We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined.Results: At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model.Summary: New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.Introduction: Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable.Conclusions: If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.

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