ATRAP antihydrogen experiments

C. H. Storry, M. Aggarwal, A. Akbari, F. Al-Rahawi, C. Amole, A. Batrachenko, A. Bebko, A. Carew, M. Chalfin, D. Comeau, G. Gabrielse, F. Garofalo, M. C. George, F. Goldenbaum, D. Grzonka, N. Guise, Y. Gura, T. Hänscn, E. A. Hessels, D. KolbeS. Kotlhammer, I. Kuljanishvili, P. Larochelle, D. Lesage, B. Levitt, K. Lewis, B. Lishak, F. Markert, F. Nillius, W. Oelert, S. Patel, P. Popescu, M. Scheid, T. Sefzick, A. Speck, D. Swierad, J. Walz, M. Weel, Jonathan P. Wrubel, Z. Zang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Antihydrogen (Hbar) was first produced at CERN in 1996. Over the past decade our ATRAP collaboration has made massive progress toward our goal of producing large numbers of cold Hbar atoms that will be captured in a magnetic gradient trap for precise comparison between the atomic spectra of matter and antimatter. The AD at CERN provides bunches of 3×107 low energy Pbars every 100 seconds. We capture and cool to 4 K, 0.1% of these in a cryogenic Penning trap. By stacking many bunches we are able to do experiments with 3×105 Pbars. ∼100 e+/sec from a 22Na radioactive source are captured and cooled in the trap, with 5×106 available experiments.We have developed 2 ways to make Hbar from these cold ingredients, namely 3-body collisions, and 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange. In the first case, Pbars are injected into a nested trap containing e+. Hbar is formed when 2 e+ and 1 Pbar collide. In 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange, laser-excited caesium (Cs) enters the trap through a small hole. Rydberg positronium is formed when a e + captures an e- from a Cs. These atoms exit the trap, some passing through a nearby cloud of cold Pbars. A 2nd charge-exchange results when a Pbar captures the e+, forming Hbar. We have also developed techniques to measure the excited-state distribution of the Hbar and measure their velocity. I will present results from these experiments and discuss the next generation of apparatus to be commissioned this year. This new apparatus includes a e + accumulator built at York University providing many more e +. The new Pbar annihilation detector provides spatial information of annihilations. Windows allow lasers to enter the trap for spectroscopic measurements and for laser cooling of the Hbar. Possibly the most exciting inclusion in this new apparatus is the inclusion of a neutral particle trap which may, for the first time, capture the Hbar and lead to the first atomic spectrum from antimatter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3437-3442
Number of pages6
JournalPhysica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics
Volume4
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

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traps
charge exchange
atomic spectra
antimatter
cesium
laser windows
inclusions
laser cooling
neutral particles
positronium
ingredients
accumulators
cryogenics
atoms
gradients
collisions
detectors
excitation
lasers
energy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Storry, C. H., Aggarwal, M., Akbari, A., Al-Rahawi, F., Amole, C., Batrachenko, A., ... Zang, Z. (2007). ATRAP antihydrogen experiments. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, 4(10), 3437-3442. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200675759

ATRAP antihydrogen experiments. / Storry, C. H.; Aggarwal, M.; Akbari, A.; Al-Rahawi, F.; Amole, C.; Batrachenko, A.; Bebko, A.; Carew, A.; Chalfin, M.; Comeau, D.; Gabrielse, G.; Garofalo, F.; George, M. C.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grzonka, D.; Guise, N.; Gura, Y.; Hänscn, T.; Hessels, E. A.; Kolbe, D.; Kotlhammer, S.; Kuljanishvili, I.; Larochelle, P.; Lesage, D.; Levitt, B.; Lewis, K.; Lishak, B.; Markert, F.; Nillius, F.; Oelert, W.; Patel, S.; Popescu, P.; Scheid, M.; Sefzick, T.; Speck, A.; Swierad, D.; Walz, J.; Weel, M.; Wrubel, Jonathan P.; Zang, Z.

In: Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol. 4, No. 10, 2007, p. 3437-3442.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Storry, CH, Aggarwal, M, Akbari, A, Al-Rahawi, F, Amole, C, Batrachenko, A, Bebko, A, Carew, A, Chalfin, M, Comeau, D, Gabrielse, G, Garofalo, F, George, MC, Goldenbaum, F, Grzonka, D, Guise, N, Gura, Y, Hänscn, T, Hessels, EA, Kolbe, D, Kotlhammer, S, Kuljanishvili, I, Larochelle, P, Lesage, D, Levitt, B, Lewis, K, Lishak, B, Markert, F, Nillius, F, Oelert, W, Patel, S, Popescu, P, Scheid, M, Sefzick, T, Speck, A, Swierad, D, Walz, J, Weel, M, Wrubel, JP & Zang, Z 2007, 'ATRAP antihydrogen experiments', Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 3437-3442. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200675759
Storry CH, Aggarwal M, Akbari A, Al-Rahawi F, Amole C, Batrachenko A et al. ATRAP antihydrogen experiments. Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics. 2007;4(10):3437-3442. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200675759
Storry, C. H. ; Aggarwal, M. ; Akbari, A. ; Al-Rahawi, F. ; Amole, C. ; Batrachenko, A. ; Bebko, A. ; Carew, A. ; Chalfin, M. ; Comeau, D. ; Gabrielse, G. ; Garofalo, F. ; George, M. C. ; Goldenbaum, F. ; Grzonka, D. ; Guise, N. ; Gura, Y. ; Hänscn, T. ; Hessels, E. A. ; Kolbe, D. ; Kotlhammer, S. ; Kuljanishvili, I. ; Larochelle, P. ; Lesage, D. ; Levitt, B. ; Lewis, K. ; Lishak, B. ; Markert, F. ; Nillius, F. ; Oelert, W. ; Patel, S. ; Popescu, P. ; Scheid, M. ; Sefzick, T. ; Speck, A. ; Swierad, D. ; Walz, J. ; Weel, M. ; Wrubel, Jonathan P. ; Zang, Z. / ATRAP antihydrogen experiments. In: Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics. 2007 ; Vol. 4, No. 10. pp. 3437-3442.
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title = "ATRAP antihydrogen experiments",
abstract = "Antihydrogen (Hbar) was first produced at CERN in 1996. Over the past decade our ATRAP collaboration has made massive progress toward our goal of producing large numbers of cold Hbar atoms that will be captured in a magnetic gradient trap for precise comparison between the atomic spectra of matter and antimatter. The AD at CERN provides bunches of 3×107 low energy Pbars every 100 seconds. We capture and cool to 4 K, 0.1{\%} of these in a cryogenic Penning trap. By stacking many bunches we are able to do experiments with 3×105 Pbars. ∼100 e+/sec from a 22Na radioactive source are captured and cooled in the trap, with 5×106 available experiments.We have developed 2 ways to make Hbar from these cold ingredients, namely 3-body collisions, and 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange. In the first case, Pbars are injected into a nested trap containing e+. Hbar is formed when 2 e+ and 1 Pbar collide. In 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange, laser-excited caesium (Cs) enters the trap through a small hole. Rydberg positronium is formed when a e + captures an e- from a Cs. These atoms exit the trap, some passing through a nearby cloud of cold Pbars. A 2nd charge-exchange results when a Pbar captures the e+, forming Hbar. We have also developed techniques to measure the excited-state distribution of the Hbar and measure their velocity. I will present results from these experiments and discuss the next generation of apparatus to be commissioned this year. This new apparatus includes a e + accumulator built at York University providing many more e +. The new Pbar annihilation detector provides spatial information of annihilations. Windows allow lasers to enter the trap for spectroscopic measurements and for laser cooling of the Hbar. Possibly the most exciting inclusion in this new apparatus is the inclusion of a neutral particle trap which may, for the first time, capture the Hbar and lead to the first atomic spectrum from antimatter.",
author = "Storry, {C. H.} and M. Aggarwal and A. Akbari and F. Al-Rahawi and C. Amole and A. Batrachenko and A. Bebko and A. Carew and M. Chalfin and D. Comeau and G. Gabrielse and F. Garofalo and George, {M. C.} and F. Goldenbaum and D. Grzonka and N. Guise and Y. Gura and T. H{\"a}nscn and Hessels, {E. A.} and D. Kolbe and S. Kotlhammer and I. Kuljanishvili and P. Larochelle and D. Lesage and B. Levitt and K. Lewis and B. Lishak and F. Markert and F. Nillius and W. Oelert and S. Patel and P. Popescu and M. Scheid and T. Sefzick and A. Speck and D. Swierad and J. Walz and M. Weel and Wrubel, {Jonathan P.} and Z. Zang",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - ATRAP antihydrogen experiments

AU - Storry, C. H.

AU - Aggarwal, M.

AU - Akbari, A.

AU - Al-Rahawi, F.

AU - Amole, C.

AU - Batrachenko, A.

AU - Bebko, A.

AU - Carew, A.

AU - Chalfin, M.

AU - Comeau, D.

AU - Gabrielse, G.

AU - Garofalo, F.

AU - George, M. C.

AU - Goldenbaum, F.

AU - Grzonka, D.

AU - Guise, N.

AU - Gura, Y.

AU - Hänscn, T.

AU - Hessels, E. A.

AU - Kolbe, D.

AU - Kotlhammer, S.

AU - Kuljanishvili, I.

AU - Larochelle, P.

AU - Lesage, D.

AU - Levitt, B.

AU - Lewis, K.

AU - Lishak, B.

AU - Markert, F.

AU - Nillius, F.

AU - Oelert, W.

AU - Patel, S.

AU - Popescu, P.

AU - Scheid, M.

AU - Sefzick, T.

AU - Speck, A.

AU - Swierad, D.

AU - Walz, J.

AU - Weel, M.

AU - Wrubel, Jonathan P.

AU - Zang, Z.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Antihydrogen (Hbar) was first produced at CERN in 1996. Over the past decade our ATRAP collaboration has made massive progress toward our goal of producing large numbers of cold Hbar atoms that will be captured in a magnetic gradient trap for precise comparison between the atomic spectra of matter and antimatter. The AD at CERN provides bunches of 3×107 low energy Pbars every 100 seconds. We capture and cool to 4 K, 0.1% of these in a cryogenic Penning trap. By stacking many bunches we are able to do experiments with 3×105 Pbars. ∼100 e+/sec from a 22Na radioactive source are captured and cooled in the trap, with 5×106 available experiments.We have developed 2 ways to make Hbar from these cold ingredients, namely 3-body collisions, and 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange. In the first case, Pbars are injected into a nested trap containing e+. Hbar is formed when 2 e+ and 1 Pbar collide. In 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange, laser-excited caesium (Cs) enters the trap through a small hole. Rydberg positronium is formed when a e + captures an e- from a Cs. These atoms exit the trap, some passing through a nearby cloud of cold Pbars. A 2nd charge-exchange results when a Pbar captures the e+, forming Hbar. We have also developed techniques to measure the excited-state distribution of the Hbar and measure their velocity. I will present results from these experiments and discuss the next generation of apparatus to be commissioned this year. This new apparatus includes a e + accumulator built at York University providing many more e +. The new Pbar annihilation detector provides spatial information of annihilations. Windows allow lasers to enter the trap for spectroscopic measurements and for laser cooling of the Hbar. Possibly the most exciting inclusion in this new apparatus is the inclusion of a neutral particle trap which may, for the first time, capture the Hbar and lead to the first atomic spectrum from antimatter.

AB - Antihydrogen (Hbar) was first produced at CERN in 1996. Over the past decade our ATRAP collaboration has made massive progress toward our goal of producing large numbers of cold Hbar atoms that will be captured in a magnetic gradient trap for precise comparison between the atomic spectra of matter and antimatter. The AD at CERN provides bunches of 3×107 low energy Pbars every 100 seconds. We capture and cool to 4 K, 0.1% of these in a cryogenic Penning trap. By stacking many bunches we are able to do experiments with 3×105 Pbars. ∼100 e+/sec from a 22Na radioactive source are captured and cooled in the trap, with 5×106 available experiments.We have developed 2 ways to make Hbar from these cold ingredients, namely 3-body collisions, and 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange. In the first case, Pbars are injected into a nested trap containing e+. Hbar is formed when 2 e+ and 1 Pbar collide. In 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange, laser-excited caesium (Cs) enters the trap through a small hole. Rydberg positronium is formed when a e + captures an e- from a Cs. These atoms exit the trap, some passing through a nearby cloud of cold Pbars. A 2nd charge-exchange results when a Pbar captures the e+, forming Hbar. We have also developed techniques to measure the excited-state distribution of the Hbar and measure their velocity. I will present results from these experiments and discuss the next generation of apparatus to be commissioned this year. This new apparatus includes a e + accumulator built at York University providing many more e +. The new Pbar annihilation detector provides spatial information of annihilations. Windows allow lasers to enter the trap for spectroscopic measurements and for laser cooling of the Hbar. Possibly the most exciting inclusion in this new apparatus is the inclusion of a neutral particle trap which may, for the first time, capture the Hbar and lead to the first atomic spectrum from antimatter.

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