Antihydrogen (Hbar) was first produced at CERN in 1996. Over the past decade our ATRAP collaboration has made massive progress toward our goal of producing large numbers of cold Hbar atoms that will be captured in a magnetic gradient trap for precise comparison between the atomic spectra of matter and antimatter. The AD at CERN provides bunches of 3×107 low energy Pbars every 100 seconds. We capture and cool to 4 K, 0.1% of these in a cryogenic Penning trap. By stacking many bunches we are able to do experiments with 3×105 Pbars. ∼100 e+/sec from a 22Na radioactive source are captured and cooled in the trap, with 5×106 available experiments.We have developed 2 ways to make Hbar from these cold ingredients, namely 3-body collisions, and 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange. In the first case, Pbars are injected into a nested trap containing e+. Hbar is formed when 2 e+ and 1 Pbar collide. In 2-stage Rydberg charge exchange, laser-excited caesium (Cs) enters the trap through a small hole. Rydberg positronium is formed when a e + captures an e- from a Cs. These atoms exit the trap, some passing through a nearby cloud of cold Pbars. A 2nd charge-exchange results when a Pbar captures the e+, forming Hbar. We have also developed techniques to measure the excited-state distribution of the Hbar and measure their velocity. I will present results from these experiments and discuss the next generation of apparatus to be commissioned this year. This new apparatus includes a e + accumulator built at York University providing many more e +. The new Pbar annihilation detector provides spatial information of annihilations. Windows allow lasers to enter the trap for spectroscopic measurements and for laser cooling of the Hbar. Possibly the most exciting inclusion in this new apparatus is the inclusion of a neutral particle trap which may, for the first time, capture the Hbar and lead to the first atomic spectrum from antimatter.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2007|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics