Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only established precursor lesion in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and it increases the risk of cancer by 11-fold. It is regarded as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is an ever-increasing body of knowledge on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of BE and its associated dysplasia. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in BE research and clinical practice in the past 2 years. It is critical to understand the molecular underpinnings of this disorder to comprehend the clinical outcomes of the disease. For clinical gastroenterologists, there is also continuous growth of endoscopic approaches which is daunting, and further improvements in the detection and treatment of BE and early EAC are anticipated. In the future, we may see the increased role of biomarkers, both molecular and imaging, in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for BE.
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