Calcium fortificants

Overview and strategies for improving calcium nutriture of the U.S. population

K. Rafferty, G. Walters, R. P. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite more than 20 y of awareness of the importance of calcium to health, U.S. calcium intakes remain suboptimal. Fortification of foods with shortfall nutrients is probably the optimal strategy for dealing with widespread nutrient deficiencies, as it has the best chance of reaching the population segments most at risk, as contrasted with attempts at changing individuals' food choices or relying on voluntary supplement taking. Given the wide array of potential calcium fortificants and fortification levels, there is not much to guide manufacturers interested in improving the nutritional value of their products. In this review, we assemble the calcium salts/complexes that have been used or proposed for use as fortificants and describe certain of their measured characteristics that relate to incorporation into foods, particularly what is known of their absorbability. The calcium salts most commonly used as supplements or fortificants exhibit similar absorbability when tested in pure chemical form. Choice of salt will depend mainly upon cost, compatability with the manufacturing process, and consumer acceptability. However, interaction with food, tablet, or beverage matrices can degrade intrinsic absorbability substantially. As a consequence, each product must be explicitly tested to establish the degree to which its calcium is available to consumers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Food Science
Volume72
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2007

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Calcium
calcium
Food
Population
Salts
salts
Food-Drug Interactions
food fortification
Beverages
Nutritive Value
nutrient deficiencies
food choices
beverages
Tablets
manufacturing
nutritive value
Costs and Cost Analysis
Health
nutrients

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science

Cite this

Calcium fortificants : Overview and strategies for improving calcium nutriture of the U.S. population. / Rafferty, K.; Walters, G.; Heaney, R. P.

In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 72, No. 9, 11.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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