Candida endocarditis associated with cardiac rhythm management devices: Review with current treatment guidelines

Ahmad Halawa, Philip D. Henry, Felix A. Sarubbi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Coincident with an increased use of cardiac rhythm management devices (CRMD) has been an increase in the number of pacemaker and cardioverter-defibrillator infections. CRMD endocarditis accounts for about 10% of all device-related infections, and cardiac infection caused by Candida sp. is a rare event. To date, only sporadic reports of this unusual and life-threatening event have been reported. By describing a case of CRMD-related Candida endocarditis and conducting a literature review, we provide a detailed characterisation of this unusual clinical entity with an emphasis on diagnosis, management and treatment. A case of CRMD-related Candida endocarditis is presented and a computer search for confirmed cases of CRMD-Candida endocarditis was conducted. Current recommendations for management and treatment were documented. From 1969 to 2009, 15 patients with CRMD-Candida endocarditis (12 pacemaker and three implanted cardioverter-defibrillator) were documented. All were males, non-albicans Candida sp. were frequently recovered, a major fungal embolus occurred in 27% of patients and two of 10 patients who received defined antifungal therapy and device explantation expired. CRMD Candida endocarditis is a rare and serious clinical event; isolates can include Candida albicans and other Candida sp., and treatment involves both targeted antifungal therapy and device removal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e168-e174
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Candida endocarditis associated with cardiac rhythm management devices: Review with current treatment guidelines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this