Objective: To Explore whether subtypes and comorbidities of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) induce distinct biases in cognitive components involved in information processing. Method: Performance on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA-CPT) was compared between 150 children (aged 7 to 10) with ADHD, grouped by DSM-5 presentation (ADHD-C, ADHD-I) or co-morbid diagnoses (anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], both, neither), and 60 children without ADHD. Diffusion decision modeling decomposed performance into cognitive components. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer information integration than controls. Children with ADHD-C were more sensitive to changes in presentation modality (auditory/visual) than those with ADHD-I and controls. Above and beyond these results, children with ADHD+anxiety+ODD had larger increases in response biases when targets became frequent than children with ADHD-only or with ADHD and one comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD presentations and comorbidities have distinct cognitive characteristics quantifiable using DDM and IVA-CPT. We discuss implications for tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Clinical Psychology