Clostridium difficile

Clinical disease and diagnosis

Floyd C. Knoop, M. Owens, I. C. Crocker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

139 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a spectrum of disease ranging from antibiotic-associated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Although the disease was first described in 1893, the etiologic agent was not isolated and identified until 1978. Since clinical and pathological features of C. difficile associated disease are not easily distinguished from those of other gastrointestinal diseases, including ulcerative colitis, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and Crohn's disease, diagnostic methods have relied on either isolation and identification of the microorganism or direct detection of bacterial antigens or toxins in stool specimens. The current review focuses on the sensitivity, specificity, and practical use of several diagnostic tests, including methods for culture of the etiologic agent, cellular cytotoxicity assays, latex agglutination tests, enzyme immunoassay systems, counterimmuno-electrophoresis, fluorescent-antibody assays, and polymerase chain reactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-265
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Microbiology Reviews
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993

Fingerprint

Clostridium difficile
Latex Fixation Tests
Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis
Bacterial Toxins
Bacterial Antigens
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Ulcerative Colitis
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Routine Diagnostic Tests
Crohn Disease
Electrophoresis
Diarrhea
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Sensitivity and Specificity
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Antibodies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Clostridium difficile : Clinical disease and diagnosis. / Knoop, Floyd C.; Owens, M.; Crocker, I. C.

In: Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 6, No. 3, 01.01.1993, p. 251-265.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Knoop, Floyd C. ; Owens, M. ; Crocker, I. C. / Clostridium difficile : Clinical disease and diagnosis. In: Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1993 ; Vol. 6, No. 3. pp. 251-265.
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