Current concepts in nutrition. Nutrition and bone disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The most important nutrients affecting bone are vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus. The active form of vitamin D is 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D; it increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus and in concert with parathyroid hormone, increases bone resorption. So blood levels of calcium and phosphorus are maintained for normal mineralisation of newly synthesized bone matrix. A deficiency of vitamin D leads to rickets in children and to osteomalacia in adults, though nutritional deficiencies of vitamin D are nowadays rare. Rickets and osteomalacia are usually the effect of other causes: malabsorption syndromes, steatorrhoea, long-term anticonvulsant therapy, chronic renal failure, etc. Milk and milk products contain calcium, other foods provide very little calcium. The requirement of the human body depends on age, pregnancy and lactation. If calcium intake is low, this can be compensated by increased intestinal absorption of calcium. In increasing age and in menopause, calcium requirements are greater. This can be prevented by estrogen replacement therapy. In food phosphorus is mostly present in sufficient quantity. In rare instances disturbances may come from phosphorus-deficient diet, phosphate-binding antacids and in familial hypophosphatemia. Deficiency of vitamin C sometimes causes osteoporosis; vitamin A-intoxication gives cortical hyperostosis in children and increased bone resorption in adults. Excessive fluoride ingestion can lead to osteosclerosis; in osteoporosis sodium fluoride and calcium help to increase formation of normally mineralized bone. (Drukker - Gieten)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-195
Number of pages3
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume298
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1978
Externally publishedYes

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Bone Diseases
Calcium
Phosphorus
Vitamin D
Osteomalacia
Rickets
Intestinal Absorption
Bone Resorption
Food
Osteoporosis
Milk
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
Familial Hypophosphatemia
Osteosclerosis
Malabsorption Syndromes
Hyperostosis
Steatorrhea
Bone and Bones
Vitamin A Deficiency
Sodium Fluoride

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Current concepts in nutrition. Nutrition and bone disease. / Gallagher, John Christopher G.; Riggs, B. L.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 298, No. 4, 1978, p. 193-195.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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