The Agricultural Revolution was almost certainly associated with a substantial decrease in human calcium intake. Calcium intakes typical of contemporary humans may well be inadequate for many individuals. Various slowly developing chronic disorders such as osteoporosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and colon cancer may be induced or exaggerated by the current low level of dietary calcium intake in Western societies. We propose two hypotheses relating calcium intake to diverse diseases: first, the adaptation required to adjust to low intakes is inadequate to maintain critical components of cellular calcium regulation; second, the constant, forced adaptive response to low intake itself produces untoward consequences.
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