Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days

Michael Shara, Sunny E. Ohia, Taharat Yasmin, Andrea Zardetto-Smith, Anthony Kincaid, Manashi Bagchi, Archana Chatterjee, Debasis Bagchi, Sidney J. Stohs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body weight and brain weight, at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment, exhibited no significant difference between the four groups. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment of HCA-SX over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any changes in hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or hispathological changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Volume254
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2003

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DNA Fragmentation
Lipid Peroxidation
Body Weight
Lipids
Liver
DNA
Garcinia
Weights and Measures
Garcinia cambogia
Animals
Rats
Fruits
Testis
Fruit
Brain
hydroxycitric acid
Condiments
ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase
Fats
Safety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. / Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E.; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J.

In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol. 254, No. 1-2, 12.2003, p. 339-346.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shara, Michael ; Ohia, Sunny E. ; Yasmin, Taharat ; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea ; Kincaid, Anthony ; Bagchi, Manashi ; Chatterjee, Archana ; Bagchi, Debasis ; Stohs, Sidney J. / Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days. In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2003 ; Vol. 254, No. 1-2. pp. 339-346.
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abstract = "(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60{\%} calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a {\%} of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0{\%} HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body weight and brain weight, at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment, exhibited no significant difference between the four groups. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment of HCA-SX over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any changes in hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or hispathological changes.",
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