EEG Connectivity in ADHD Compared to a Normative Database: A Cohort Analysis of 120 Subjects from the ICAN Study

Cynthia Kerson, Joel Lubar, Roger deBeus, Xueliang Pan, Robert Rice, Theodore Allen, Maha Yazbeck, Shlok Sah, Yajat Dhawan, Wei Zong, Michelle E. Roley-Roberts, L. Eugene Arnold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study explores how EEG connectivity measures in children with ADHD ages 7–10 (n = 140) differ from an age-matched nonclinical database. We differentiated connectivity in networks, Brodmann area pairs, and frequencies. Subjects were in the International Collaborative ADHD Neurofeedback study, which explored neurofeedback for ADHD. Inclusion criteria were mainly rigorously diagnosed ADHD and a theta/beta power ratio (TBR) ≤ 4.5. Using statistical and machine learning algorithms, connectivity values were extracted in coherence, phase, and lag coherence at all Brodmann, subcortical, and cerebellar areas within the main networks in all EEG frequencies and then compared with a normative database. There is a higher rate of dysregulation (more than ± 1.97SD), in some cases as much as 75%, of the Brodmann pairs observed in coherence and phase between BAs 7, 10, and 11 with secondary connections from these areas to BAs 21, 30, 35, 37, 39, and 40 in the ADHD children as compared to the normative database. Left and right Brodmann areas 10 and 11 are highly disconnected to each other. The most dysregulated Brodmann Areas in ADHD are 7, 10, and 11, relevant to ADHD executive-function deficits and provide important considerations when developing interventions for ADHD children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalApplied Psychophysiology Biofeedback
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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