Effect of adhesive application method on the enamel bond durability of a two-step adhesive system utilizing a universal adhesive-derived primer

Toshiki Takamizawa, Munenori Yokoyama, Keiichi Sai, Sho Shibasaki, Wayne W. Barkmeier, Mark A. Latta, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Masashi Miyazaki


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the adhesive application method on the durability of the enamel bond and the thickness of the adhesive layer. A new-generation two-step universal adhesive system, G2-Bond Universal, and two conventional two-step adhesive systems were utilized. The shear bond strength to bovine enamel was measured after thermal cycling in both etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes. Fifteen specimens were divided into three groups as follows: Group I, wherein a strong air stream was applied over the bonding agent for 5 s; Group II, wherein a gentle air stream was applied over the bonding agent for 5 s; and Group III, which was prepared as in Group II, followed by the application of a second layer of the bonding agent and a gentle air stream for 5 s. The durability of the enamel bond and thickness of the tested adhesives were influenced by the application method in both etching modes. The application method used in Group II appeared to be most suitable in terms of the bonding of the adhesives to the enamel. The new-generation two-step self-etch adhesive, comprising a universal adhesive-derived primer and a hydrophobic bonding agent, showed superior bond performance to the conventional two-step adhesive systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7675
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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