Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced application times of universal adhesives on enamel bond fatigue and surface morphology of the treated enamel with constant force atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods: Four universal adhesives—Adhese Universal (AU), Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CU), G-Premio Bond (GP), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SU)—were evaluated in a laboratory for their ability to adhesively bond resin composite to enamel. Shear bond strengths were initially determined using 15 specimens per test group for each adhesive. Shear fatigue strengths were then determined using 20 specimens per test group for each the adhesives. The fatigue specimens were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. AFM observations, surface Ra roughness measurements, and geometric surface area evaluations of enamel surface treated with the adhesive agents were also conducted.
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