OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of three specially designed polishing kits for provisional restorations made from three chairside computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) provisional resin blocks. METHOD: Ninety-six chairside CAD/CAM provisional restorations were milled out of three chairside CAD/CAM provisional resin blocks: (1) ArtBloc Temp (Merz Dental); (2) Telio CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent); and (3) Vita CAD-Temp (VITA Zahnfabrik). The provisional restorations for each material were allocated into the following groups: (1) milled restorations (no polish); (2) polished with CADMaster CAD/CAM Adjustment & Polishing Kit (CM, Shofu); (3) polished with KUT Ultimate Bisacryl (Temporaries) Polishing Kit (KU, Dental Savings Club); and (4) polished with K0330 PMMA Adjusting, Finishing & Polishing (KP, Brasseler USA). Optical profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the surface roughness (Ra) of each provisional restoration at the microscale and nanoscale, respectively, and obtain topographical images. In addition, the milled and polished restorations were visually evaluated by 16 dentists. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation with Ra values between optical profilometry and AFM. Only KP significantly improved the surface roughness of CAD/CAM provisional restorations compared to the milled equivalent, regardless of material type or measurement modality (ie, lateral length scale). Although surface topography imaging with AFM revealed some shallow scratches, even for KP polished specimens, all KP polished restorations were categorized as clinically acceptable for provisional restorations in visual inspections from dentists. CONCLUSION: Specially designed polishing kits for provisional restorations did not all improve the surface roughness of chairside CAD/CAM provisional restorations, regardless of the measurement method. KP was more consistently effective in polishing milled chairside CAD/CAM provisional restorations than CM and KU.
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