Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy

R. P. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Caffeine-containing beverage consumption has been reported to be associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk in some, but not most, observational studies. Human physiological studies and controlled balance studies show a clear but only a very small depressant effect of caffeine itself on intestinal calcium absorption, and no effect on total 24-h urinary calcium excretion. The epidemiologic studies showing a negative effect may be explained in part by an inverse relationship between consumption of milk and caffeine-containing beverages. Low calcium intake is clearly linked to skeletal fragility, and it is likely that a high caffeine intake is often a marker for a low calcium intake. The negative effect of caffeine on calcium absorption is small enough to be fully offset by as little as 1-2 tablespoons of milk. All of the observations implicating caffeine-containing beverages as a risk factor for osteoporosis have been made in populations consuming substantially less than optimal calcium intakes. There is no evidence that caffeine has any harmful effect on bone status or on the calcium economy in individuals who ingest the currently recommended daily allowances of calcium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1270
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume40
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2002

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caffeine
Caffeine
Bone
bones
Calcium
calcium
Bone and Bones
Beverages
beverages
Milk
Recommended Dietary Allowances
balance studies
milk consumption
Intestinal Absorption
osteoporosis
observational studies
epidemiological studies
Osteoporosis
Observational Studies
Epidemiologic Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. / Heaney, R. P.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 40, No. 9, 09.2002, p. 1263-1270.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Heaney, R. P. / Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2002 ; Vol. 40, No. 9. pp. 1263-1270.
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