Background Gastric variceal bleeding carries significant mortality in the setting of portal hypertension. Among the endoscopic treatment options, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided glue and/or coil injection is a novel approach, but its role in the treatment of gastric varices is not established due to a lack of robust data. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of several databases (inception to June 2019) to identify studies evaluating EUS in the treatment of gastric varices. Our primary goals were to estimate the pooled rates of treatment efficacy, obliteration and recurrence of gastric varices, early and late rebleeding, and adverse events with EUS-guided therapy in gastric varices. We also searched for studies that evaluated direct endoscopic glue (END-glue) injection for treatment of gastric varices, and used the pooled rates as comparators. Results 23 studies (851 patients) evaluating EUS-guided therapy were included. The pooled treatment efficacy was 93.7?% (95?% confidence interval [CI] 89.5?-?96.3, I 2 ?=?53.7), gastric varices obliteration was 84.4?% (95?%CI 74.8?-?90.9, I 2 ?=?77), gastric varices recurrence was 9.1?% (95?%CI 5.2?-?15.7, I 2 ?=?32), early rebleeding was 7.0?% (95?%CI 4.6?-?10.7, I 2 ?=?0), and late rebleeding was 11.6?% (95?%CI 8.8?-?15.1, I 2 ?=?22). The rates were comparable to END-glue therapy (28 studies, 3467 patients) except for obliteration, which was significantly better with EUS-guided therapy. On subgroup analysis, EUS-coil/glue combination showed superior outcomes. Conclusions EUS-guided therapy demonstrated clinical efficacy for treatment of gastric varices in terms of obliteration, recurrence, and long-term rebleeding, and may be superior to END-glue.
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