Efficient molecular screening of Lynch syndrome by specific 3′ promoter methylation of the MLH1 or BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability

Hitoshi Nakagawa, Takeshi Nagasaka, Harry M. Cullings, Kenji Notohara, Naoko Hoshijima, Joanne Young, Henry T. Lynch, Noriaki Tanaka, Nagahide Matsubara

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Abstract

It is sometimes difficult to diagnose Lynch syndrome by the simple but strict clinical criteria, or even by the definitive genetic testing for causative germline mutation of mismatch repair genes. Thus, some practical and efficient screening strategy to select highly possible Lynch syndrome patients is exceedingly desirable. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the methylation status of whole MLH1 promoter region by direct bisulfite sequencing of the entire MLH1 promoter regions on Lynch and non-Lynch colorectal cancers (CRCs). Then, we established a convenient assay to detect methylation in key CpG islands responsible for the silencing of MLH1 expression. We studied the methylation status of MLH1 as well as the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair proteins on 16 cases of Lynch CRC and 19 cases of sporadic CRCs with high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Sensitivity to detect Lynch syndrome by MLH1 (CCAAT) methylation was 88% and the specificity was 84%. Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 5.5 and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.15. Sensitivity by mutational analysis of BRAF was 100%, specificity was 84%, PLR was 6.3 and NLR was zero. By CIMP analysis; sensitivity was 88%, specificity was 79%, PLR was 4.2, and NLR was 0.16. BRAF mutation or MLH1 methylation analysis combined with MSI testing could be a good alternative to screen Lynch syndrome patients in a cost effective manner. Although the assay for CIMP status also showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity, it may not be practical because of its rather complicated assay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1577-1583
Number of pages7
JournalOncology Reports
Volume21
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 12 2009

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Nakagawa, H., Nagasaka, T., Cullings, H. M., Notohara, K., Hoshijima, N., Young, J., Lynch, H. T., Tanaka, N., & Matsubara, N. (2009). Efficient molecular screening of Lynch syndrome by specific 3′ promoter methylation of the MLH1 or BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability. Oncology Reports, 21(6), 1577-1583. https://doi.org/10.3892/or_00000390