Electrogenerated chemiluminescence: An oxidative-reductive mechanism between quinolone antibiotics and tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)

Matthew S. Burkhead, Heeyoung Wang, Marcel Fallet, Erin M. Gross

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35 Scopus citations


The cyclic voltammetry and electrogenerated chemiluminescent (ECL) reactions of a series of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics were investigated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. 7-Piperazinyl fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found to participate as a coreactant in an oxidative-reductive ECL mechanism with tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3 2+) as the luminescent reagent. The reaction mechanism was investigated in order to understand and optimize the processes leading to light emission. The optimal conditions included a solution pH ∼7 at a flow rate of 3.0 mL min-1 with no added organic modifier and application of 1.2 V vs. a Pt quasi-reference electrode (QRE). Fluoroquinolones containing a tertiary distal nitrogen on the piperazine ring, such as enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, reacted to produce more intense ECL than those with a secondary nitrogen, such as ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. The method linear range, precision, detection limits, and sensitivity for the detection of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were compared to that of tripropylamine. The method was applied to the determination of the ciprofloxacin content in a pharmaceutical preparation. The assay is discussed in terms of its analytical figures of merit, ease of use, speed, accuracy and application to pharmaceutical samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-162
Number of pages11
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 21 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy


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