Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: Toward a preventive vaccine

Kristen M. Drescher, Matthias von Herrath, Steven Tracy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary: Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-32
Number of pages14
JournalReviews in Medical Virology
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Enterovirus
Hygiene
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Vaccines
Viruses
Poliomyelitis
Vaccination
Enterovirus Infections
Human Enterovirus B
Inbred NOD Mouse
Sanitation
Water Supply
Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
Infection
Autoimmunity
Immunity
Incidence
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes : Toward a preventive vaccine. / Drescher, Kristen M.; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven.

In: Reviews in Medical Virology, Vol. 25, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 19-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Drescher, Kristen M. ; von Herrath, Matthias ; Tracy, Steven. / Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes : Toward a preventive vaccine. In: Reviews in Medical Virology. 2015 ; Vol. 25, No. 1. pp. 19-32.
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