Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is one of the major factors limiting cisplatin chemotherapy. Ototoxicity results from damage to outer hair cells (OHCs) and other regions of the cochlea. At the cellular level, cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cochlear inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, ideal otoprotective drugs should target oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms without interfering with cisplatin's chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we show that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a prototypic agent exhibiting these properties of an effect otoprotective agent. Rats administered oral EGCG demonstrate reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss, reduced loss of OHCs in the basal region of the cochlea and reduced oxidative stress and apoptotic markers. EGCG also protected against the loss of ribbon synapses associated with inner hair cells and Na+/K+ ATPase α1 in the stria vascularis and spiral ligament. In vitro studies showed that EGCG reduced cisplatin-induced ROS generation and ERK1/2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activity, but preserved the activity of STAT3 and Bcl-xL. The increase in STAT3/STAT1 ratio appears critical for mediating its otoprotection. EGCG did not alter cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human-derived cancer cells or cisplatin antitumor efficacy in a xenograft tumor model in mice because of its inability to rescue the downregulation of STAT3 in these cells. These data suggest that EGCG is an ideal otoprotective agent for treating cisplatin-induced hearing loss without compromising its antitumor efficacy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research