We present a case of esophageal papillomatosis with underlying squamous cell carcinoma in situ. An esophageal lesion resected from a 74-year-old woman demonstrated histological findings characteristic of squamous cell papilloma (fibrovascular core and numerous finger-like projections covered with hyperplastic squamous epithelium) and severe dysplasia characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. The relation of squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma is discussed. It is suggested that esophageal squamous cell papilloma is a premalignant lesion.
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