In this study, dentin bond fatigue resistance and interfacial science characteristics of universal adhesives through etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes were investigated. Resin composite was bonded to human dentin with four universal adhesives, namely, Adhese Universal, All-Bond Universal, G-Premio Bond, and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive. The initial bond strengths, bond fatigue strengths, and interfacial science characteristics of the universal adhesives with dentin through etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes were determined. Bond fatigue resistance (initial bond strength and bond fatigue strength) of universal adhesives in etch-and-rinse mode showed no significant difference in contrast to that in self-etch mode and was material-dependent regardless of the etching mode. Although phosphoric acid conditioning of dentin did not have a strong impact on the bond fatigue resistance, surface free energy and parameters of dentin were significantly decreased by etching and by application of universal adhesives regardless of etching mode. Changes in γS and γS h for when universal adhesive was applied to etched and ground dentin were significantly different depending on the adhesive. The results suggest that bonding performance of universal adhesives was effective in both etching modes; however, bonding mechanisms may be different for each.
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