Extreme electronic modulation of the cofacial porphyrin structural motif

James T. Fletcher, Michael J. Therien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


The synthesis, electrochemistry, and optical spectroscopy of an extensive series of cofacial bis-[(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds are reported. These species were synthesized using sequential palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling and cobalt-mediated [2+2+2] cycloaddition reactions. This modular methodology enables facile control of the nature of macrocycle-to-macrocycle connectivity and allows unprecedented modulation of the redox properties of face-to-face porphyrin species. We report the synthesis of 5,6-bis-[(5′5″-10′,20′-bis[4- (3-methoxy-3-methylbutoxy)phenyl]porphinato)zinc(II)]indane (1), 5,6-bis[(2′-5′, 10′, 15′,-20′-tetraphenylporphinato)zinc(II)]indane (2), 5-([2′-5′,10′,15′,20′- tetraphenylporphinato]zinc(II))-6-[(5″-10″, 20″-bis[4-(3-methoxy-3-methylbutoxy)phenyl] porphinato)zinc(II)] (3), 5-([2′-5′,10′,15′,20′- tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato)zinc(II)-6- [(5″,10″,20″-bis [4-(3-methoxy-3-methylbutoxy)phenyl]porphinato)-zinc (II)]indane (4), 5-(2′-5′,10′,15′,20′- [tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-6 [(2″-5″,10″,15″,20″-tetra-phenylporphinato) zinc(II)]indane (5), 5,6-bis([2′-5′,15′-diphenyl-10′,20′- (trifluoromethyl)porphinato]zinc(II))-indane (6), and 5,6-bis([2′-5′,10′,15′, 20′-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato]zinc(II))indane (7); 4-7 define the first examples of cofacial bis[(porphinato)metal] compounds in which σ-electron-withdrawing perfluoroalkyl groups serve as macrocycle substituents, while 2, 6, and 7 constitute the first such structures that possess a β-to-β linkage topology. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the electrochemically determined HOMO and LUMO energy levels of these cofacial bis(porphinato) complexes can be lowered by 780 and 945 mV, respectively, relative to the archetypal members of this class of compounds; importantly, these orbital energy levels can be modulated over well-defined increments throughout these wide potentiometric domains. Analyses of these cofacial bis[(porphinato)metal] potentiometric data, in terms of the absolute and relative frontier orbital energies of their constituent [porphinato] zinc(II) building blocks, as well as the nature of macrocycle-to-macrocycle connectivity, provide predictive electronic structural models that rationalize the redox behavior of these species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4298-4311
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 24 2002
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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