The marine toxin gambierol, a polyether ladder toxin derived from the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, was evaluated for interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) cultures. At concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 μM, gambierol alone had no effect on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca 2+]i of exposed CGN cultures. Furthermore, there was no evidence of neurotoxicity in CGN cultures exposed for 2 h to gambierol (1 nM-10 μM). However, gambierol was a potent inhibitor (IC50 = 189 nM) of the elevation of [Ca2+]i that accompanies exposure of CGN cultures to the VGSC activator brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2). To further explore the potential interaction of gambierol with VGSCs, the influence of gambierol on PbTx-2-induced neurotoxicity was assessed. Gambierol reduced the PbTx-2-induced efflux of lactate dehydrogenase in exposed CGN cultures in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 471 nM). It is noteworthy that the potencies of gambierol as an inhibitor of both PbTx-2-induced Ca 2+ influx and cytotoxicity were coincident. Finally, the inhibitory effects of gambierol on PbTx-2-induced elevation of [Ca2+] i were compared with those of brevenal, a natural inhibitor of the toxic effects of brevetoxin isolated from cultures of Karina brevis. Like gambierol, brevenal inhibited PbTx-2-induced elevation of [Ca2+] i in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 108.6 nM). These results provide evidence for gambierol acting as a functional antagonist of neurotoxin site 5 on neuronal VGSCs.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2007|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine