Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol

Robert P. Heaney, K. Michael Davies, Tai C. Chen, Michael F. Holick, M. Janet Barger-Lux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

929 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The cholecalciferol inputs required to achieve or maintain any given serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration are not known, particularly within ranges comparable to the probable physiologic supply of the vitamin. Objectives: The objectives were to establish the quantitative relation between steady state cholecalciferol input and the resulting serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration and to estimate the proportion of the daily requirement during winter that is met by cholecalciferol reserves in body tissue stores. Design: Cholecalciferol was administered daily in controlled oral doses labeled at 0, 25, 125, and 250 μg cholecalciferol for ≈20 wk during the winter to 67 men living in Omaha (41.2° N latitude). The time course of serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was measured at intervals over the course of treatment. Results: From a mean baseline value of 70.3 nmol/L, equilibrium concentrations of serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol changed during the winter months in direct proportion to the dose, with a slope of ≈0.70 nmol/L for each additional 1 μg cholecalciferol input. The calculated oral input required to sustain the serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration present before the study (ie, in the autumn) was 12.5 μg (500 IU)/d, whereas the total amount from all sources (supplement, food, tissue stores) needed to sustain the starting 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was estimated at ≈96 μg (≈3800 IU)/ d. By difference, the tissue stores provided ≈78-82 μg/d. Conclusions: Healthy men seem to use 3000-5000 IU cholecalciferol/d, apparently meeting >80% of their winter cholecalciferol need with cutaneously synthesized accumulations from solar sources during the preceding summer months. Current recommended vitamin D inputs are inadequate to maintain serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in the absence of substantial cutaneous production of vitamin D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-210
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume77
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

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25-hydroxycholecalciferol
Calcifediol
cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol
mouth
Serum
winter
vitamin D
Vitamin D
dosage
Dietary Supplements
Vitamins
normal values
dietary supplements
vitamins
autumn
Skin
summer

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Heaney, R. P., Davies, K. M., Chen, T. C., Holick, M. F., & Janet Barger-Lux, M. (2003). Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77(1), 204-210.

Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. / Heaney, Robert P.; Davies, K. Michael; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.; Janet Barger-Lux, M.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 77, No. 1, 01.01.2003, p. 204-210.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heaney, RP, Davies, KM, Chen, TC, Holick, MF & Janet Barger-Lux, M 2003, 'Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 204-210.
Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Janet Barger-Lux M. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Jan 1;77(1):204-210.
Heaney, Robert P. ; Davies, K. Michael ; Chen, Tai C. ; Holick, Michael F. ; Janet Barger-Lux, M. / Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 ; Vol. 77, No. 1. pp. 204-210.
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abstract = "Background: The cholecalciferol inputs required to achieve or maintain any given serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration are not known, particularly within ranges comparable to the probable physiologic supply of the vitamin. Objectives: The objectives were to establish the quantitative relation between steady state cholecalciferol input and the resulting serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration and to estimate the proportion of the daily requirement during winter that is met by cholecalciferol reserves in body tissue stores. Design: Cholecalciferol was administered daily in controlled oral doses labeled at 0, 25, 125, and 250 μg cholecalciferol for ≈20 wk during the winter to 67 men living in Omaha (41.2° N latitude). The time course of serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was measured at intervals over the course of treatment. Results: From a mean baseline value of 70.3 nmol/L, equilibrium concentrations of serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol changed during the winter months in direct proportion to the dose, with a slope of ≈0.70 nmol/L for each additional 1 μg cholecalciferol input. The calculated oral input required to sustain the serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration present before the study (ie, in the autumn) was 12.5 μg (500 IU)/d, whereas the total amount from all sources (supplement, food, tissue stores) needed to sustain the starting 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was estimated at ≈96 μg (≈3800 IU)/ d. By difference, the tissue stores provided ≈78-82 μg/d. Conclusions: Healthy men seem to use 3000-5000 IU cholecalciferol/d, apparently meeting >80{\%} of their winter cholecalciferol need with cutaneously synthesized accumulations from solar sources during the preceding summer months. Current recommended vitamin D inputs are inadequate to maintain serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in the absence of substantial cutaneous production of vitamin D.",
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