Ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4; CD152), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for the treatment of unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma. Although the addition of this particular immunotherapy has broadened treatment options, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are associated with ipilimumab therapy, including dermatologic effects, colitis and diarrhea, endocrine effects, hepatotoxicity, ocular effects, renal effects, neurologic effects, and others. In this article, a critical evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of irAEs associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy is presented. Additionally, potentially beneficial effects of combinational therapies to alleviate ipilimumab-induced irAEs in malignant melanoma are discussed. Future research is warranted to elucidate the efficacy of such combination therapies and specific biomarkers that would help to predict a clinical response to ipilimumab in patients with malignant melanoma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, medical
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health