Rotator cuff lesions (RCLs) are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. The rotator cuff tendons can degenerate and/or tear from the greater tuberosity of the humerus, which is associated with several anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes in tendon and muscle. In this article, these pathways are critically reviewed and discussed with various management strategies of RCLs. The article also highlights the immunobiological responses following the RCL and the inherent repair mechanisms elicited by the body. The greatest difficulty in treating this pathology is that the muscle can undergo irreversible fatty infiltration in the setting of chronic tears that is associated with poor surgical outcomes. The article also investigates the key molecular pathways of the muscle homeostasis (mTOR, Rho kinase, AMPK, and Ca2+) with the energy metabolism to propose a possible mechanism for fatty infiltration. Future research is warranted to target the key players of these pathways in the management of fatty infiltration and thus RCL.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology