Introduction: Wear debris-induced osteolysis is a common cause of arthroplasty failure in several joints including the knee, hip and intervertebral disc. Debris from the prosthesis can trigger an inflammatory response that leads to aseptic loosening and prosthesis failure. In the spine, periprosthetic pain also occurs following accumulation of wear debris through neovascularization of the disc. The role of the immune system in the pathobiology of periprosthetic osteolysis of joint replacements is debatable. Areas covered: We discussed the stimulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-protective and pro-regenerative pathways due to debris from the prosthetics. The balance between the two pathways may determine the outcome results. Also, the role of cytokines and immune cells in periprosthetic inflammation in the etiology of osteolysis is critically reviewed. Expert commentary: Therapies targeting the inflammatory process associated with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear debris could reduce implant failure. Additionally, therapies targeting neovascularization of discs following arthroplasty could mitigate periprosthetic pain.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy