Immunological basis in the pathogenesis and treatment of bladder cancer

David B. Thompson, Larry E. Siref, Michael P. Feloney, Ralph J. Hauke, Devendra K. Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium into bladder carcinoma are multifactorial processes. Chronic inflammation causes initiation and progression of the underlying pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of immune cells in bladder cancer. While the immune response defends the host by suppressing neoplastic growth, several immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and T-lymphocytes, promote tumor development and progression. The levels of human neutrophil peptide-1, -2 and -3, produced by neutrophils, increase in bladder cancer and might promote tumor angiogenesis and growth. The effect of macrophages is primarily mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, the underlying immunological mechanisms of two treatments, BCG and cytokine gene-modified tumor vaccines, and future directions are critically discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-279
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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