Background: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an aggressive, malignant mesenchymal tumor with characteristic smooth muscle lineage accounting for 10–20% of all soft tissue tumors. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of prognostic factors on leiomyosarcoma survival irrespective of primary anatomical site. Methods: There were a total of 7154 patients with primary leiomyosarcoma identified and analyzed from the National Cancer Database. Descriptive statistics, median survival, and 5- and 10-year survival probabilities were calculated along with a Cox proportional hazard model to determine independent prognostic factors. Results: In this study, females comprised 68.3% of the cohort with a median age of 58 years. The most common primary anatomical sites were the extremities followed by female reproductive organs, abdomen, pelvis, thorax or lung, and head or neck. Tumors localized in the female reproductive organs had the worst survival (5-year survival probability: 45.3%), while tumors localized in the extremities had the best survival outcomes (5-year survival probability: 73.4%). Surgery with adjuvant radiation yielded better outcomes compared to surgery alone (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74–0.91). Microscopic and macroscopic margins resulted in a 32% and a 134% increased risk in mortality, respectively, when compared to negative surgical margins (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed a significantly higher risk of mortality associated with older patients, tumors localized to the female reproductive organs, African American patients, higher tumor stage, increased Charlson/Deyo scores, tumors treated with surgery alone without adjuvant radiation, and tumors with positive microscopic, macroscopic, or indeterminate surgical margins.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research