Independent community pharmacies’ provision of enhanced services: A mixed methods approach

Federico Facciolo, Mark V. Siracuse, Kimberly A. Galt, Kevin T. Fuji, James D. Bramble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: The pharmacy profession continues to broaden toward a patient-centered care practice. Pharmacy members of formal enhanced services networks are embracing this practice. However, descriptions of how pharmacies adopt a patient-centered care practice by providing enhanced services are not widely known. Objectives: To explore the pharmacy services of Nebraska independent community pharmacists within the context of the pharmacy profession's transition toward patient-centered care and determine if pharmacy participation in a formal enhanced pharmacy services network is associated with the provision of enhanced services. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used by first conducting a cross-sectional quantitative survey, followed by a small qualitative study to further explain the survey findings. The survey of 193 Nebraska independent community pharmacies included members and nonmembers of the Nebraska Enhanced Services Pharmacies (NESP) network. Data were collected on the enhanced services offered. Survey analyses used descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data on reasons for offering enhanced services and their profitability were subsequently collected using a focus group of 3 independent community pharmacy owners. The interview transcript analysis used coding to generate major themes. Results: The survey response rate was 59%. Across all respondents, the average number of enhanced services offered was 17.3 out of 47 services studied. NESP members provided more enhanced services (x¯ = 20) than non-NESP members (x¯ = 16), P = 0.003. NESP membership was associated with the opinion that offering enhanced services increases profits, P = 0.016. The major themes were “NESP members have always been taking care of people” and “Profitability from enhanced services is key for sustainability of independent community pharmacies.” Conclusion: Independent community pharmacies provide a range of enhanced services. NESP members provided more enhanced services than non-NESP members and focused on taking care of people by providing enhanced services. NESP membership may provide opportunities for pharmacies to offer more enhanced services to patients with the intent to improve patient-centered care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)819-828.e1
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology


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