Intragastric surgery for benign and malignant conditions is a new form of minimally invasive surgery, to which the term endo-organ gastric surgery has been applied. This procedure may provide improved results for patients, but reported studies are small, and follow-up evaluation is limited. The indications for endo-organ surgery are evolving as technology and operative expertise begin to meet the need for continued advancements in miniaturized surgery. This new approach is applied primarily to the removal of gastric neoplasms poorly positioned or too large for standard transoral endoscopic excision. Gastric polyps, benign gastric wall tumors such as leiomyomas and carcinoids, and low-grade as well as high-grade malignancies can be removed. The history of endo-organ surgery, the background technology, and surgical experience are reviewed. In addition, current indications for endo-organ surgery and the rationale for algorithms are included. Intraluminal gastric surgery is not widely performed or studied, therefore a further understanding of its role is provided.
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