Increased expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) associates with the progression of many human diseases. Because DNMT1 induces cell proliferation, drugs that inhibit DNMT1 have been used to treat proliferative diseases. Because these drugs are nonspecific inhibitors of DNMT1, subsidiary events or the compensatory mechanisms that are activated in the absence of DNMT1 limit their therapeutic application. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms that occur during angioplasty-induced restenosis and found that DNMT1 inhibition in both in vitro and in vivo approaches resulted in the induction of DNA methyltransferase-3a (DNMT3a) expression. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the microRNA hsa-miR-1264 mimic, specifically inhibiting DNMT1, induced nuclear expression of DNMT3a. On the contrary, there was no induced expression of DNMT3a in VSMCs that were transfected with hsa-miR-1264 inhibitor. Further, ectopic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) through adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery in the coronary arteries of Yucatan microswine showed inhibition of both DNMT1 and DNMT3a in vivo. These findings show the existence of an inter-regulatory mechanism between DNMT1 and DNMT3a where, in the absence of DNMT1, induction of DNMT3a compensates for the loss of DNMT1 functions, suggesting that the inhibition of both DNMT1 and DNMT3a are required to prevent restenosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)