The objective of this study was to develop a nanodelivery system containing a mucoadhesive polymer hyaluronic acid (HA) for oral delivery. Metformin was used as a model drug. Blank and drug-loaded HA nanostructures were prepared by precipitation method and characterized for particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), physical stability (over 65 days), surface morphology, moisture content, and physical state of the drug in the nanostructures. The cytotoxicity and hemolysis potential of the delivery system was assessed in Caco-2 cells and whole human blood, respectively. The in vitro release of metformin and its uptake in Caco-2 cells was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ex vivo permeability of metformin was measured through goat intestinal membrane. The nanoparticles were physically stable and neutrally charged with an average PS of 114.53 ± 12.01 nm. This nanodelivery system existed as nanofibers containing metformin in a crystalline state. This delivery system released the drug rapidly with > 50% of metformin released within 1 h. Cellular uptake studies on Caco-2 cells indicated higher uptake of metformin from nanoparticle as compared to metformin in solution, up to first 45 min. Ex vivo permeability studies on the other hand showed a higher metformin permeability from solution relative to that from nanoparticles through the goat intestinal membrane. Metformin nanoparticles were non-toxic at therapeutic concentrations in Caco-2 cells and showed no hemolytic effect to RBCs. This study indicates the preparation, characterization, as well as the potential use of HA nanostructures for oral delivery.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery