Outside of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental mycobacteria (>190 species) and are classified as slow-or rapid-growing mycobacteria. Infections caused by NTM show an increased incidence in immunocompromised patients and patients with underlying structural lung disease. The true global prevalence of NTM infections remains unknown because many countries do not require mandatory reporting of the infection. This is coupled with a challenging diagnosis and identification of the species. Current therapies for treatment of NTM infections require multidrug regimens for a minimum of 18 months and are associated with serious adverse reactions, infection relapse, and high reinfection rates, necessitating discovery of novel antimycobacterial agents. Robust drug discovery processes have discovered inhibitors targeting mycobacterial membrane protein large 3 (MmpL3), a protein responsible for translocating mycolic acids from the inner membrane to periplasm in the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell membrane. This review focuses on promising new chemical scaffolds that inhibit MmpL3 function and represent interesting and promising putative drug candidates for the treatment of NTM infections. Additionally, agents (FS-1, SMARt420, C10) that promote reversion of drug resistance are also reviewed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry