Mutations in two independent pathways are sufficient to create hermaphroditic nematodes

Chris Baldi, Soochin Cho, Ronald E. Ellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Although the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces self-fertile hermaphrodites, it descended from a male/female species, so hermaphroditism provides a model for the origin of novel traits. In the related species C. remanei, which has only male and female sexes, lowering the activity of tra-2 by RNA interference created XX animals that made spermatids as well as oocytes, but their spermatids could not activate without the addition of male seminal fluid. However, by lowering the expression of both tra-2 and swm-1, a gene that regulates sperm activation in C. elegans, we produced XX animals with active sperm that were self-fertile. Thus, the evolution of hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis probably required two steps: a mutation in the sex-determination pathway that caused XX spermatogenesis and a mutation that allowed these spermatids to self-activate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1002-1005
Number of pages4
Issue number5955
StatePublished - Nov 13 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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