Newer perspectives on calcium nutrition and bone quality

Robert P. Heaney, Connie M. Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is now generally accepted that an adequate calcium intake is important for building and maintaining a skeleton that expresses quantitatively the full genetic program and reduces lifetime fracture risk. In this brief review we focus mainly on a new and growing body of evidence indicating a benefit of adequate calcium intake on qualitative features of the skeleton that, independent of the quantity of bone, themselves influence skeletal strength and fragility. Change in bone mass and size during growth are dependent on both calcium intake and exercise, with the largest differences being observed in prepubertal children who have both high exercise levels and high calcium intakes. Much of this benefit is expressed as increased bone diameter (and hence stiffness). Fracture risk peaks at about the time of puberty and is inversely related to bone mass. However, even prepubertally. children with low calcium intakes have been reported to have a fracture rate 2.7× that of their birth cohort. Bone remodeling triples from age 50 to 65 in typical women and is now recognized to have primarily a homeostatic basis. While remodeling improves bone strength by repairing acquired defects, homeostatic remodeling, while necessary to maintain blood calcium levels, contributes only structural weakness to bone. High calcium intakes in postmenopausal and older women reduce this homeostatic remodeling to approximately pre-menopausal values and improve bone strength immediately, well prior to any appreciable change in bone mass.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Volume24
Issue number6 SUPPL.
StatePublished - 2005

Fingerprint

bones
nutrition
Calcium
calcium
Bone and Bones
bone strength
Bone Remodeling
Skeleton
skeleton
exercise
Exercise
menopause
puberty
Puberty
Parturition
blood
Growth

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Newer perspectives on calcium nutrition and bone quality. / Heaney, Robert P.; Weaver, Connie M.

In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 6 SUPPL., 2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Heaney, Robert P. ; Weaver, Connie M. / Newer perspectives on calcium nutrition and bone quality. In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2005 ; Vol. 24, No. 6 SUPPL.
@article{c9635be2c2cb4a119e215192ab04f1c7,
title = "Newer perspectives on calcium nutrition and bone quality",
abstract = "It is now generally accepted that an adequate calcium intake is important for building and maintaining a skeleton that expresses quantitatively the full genetic program and reduces lifetime fracture risk. In this brief review we focus mainly on a new and growing body of evidence indicating a benefit of adequate calcium intake on qualitative features of the skeleton that, independent of the quantity of bone, themselves influence skeletal strength and fragility. Change in bone mass and size during growth are dependent on both calcium intake and exercise, with the largest differences being observed in prepubertal children who have both high exercise levels and high calcium intakes. Much of this benefit is expressed as increased bone diameter (and hence stiffness). Fracture risk peaks at about the time of puberty and is inversely related to bone mass. However, even prepubertally. children with low calcium intakes have been reported to have a fracture rate 2.7× that of their birth cohort. Bone remodeling triples from age 50 to 65 in typical women and is now recognized to have primarily a homeostatic basis. While remodeling improves bone strength by repairing acquired defects, homeostatic remodeling, while necessary to maintain blood calcium levels, contributes only structural weakness to bone. High calcium intakes in postmenopausal and older women reduce this homeostatic remodeling to approximately pre-menopausal values and improve bone strength immediately, well prior to any appreciable change in bone mass.",
author = "Heaney, {Robert P.} and Weaver, {Connie M.}",
year = "2005",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
journal = "Journal of the American College of Nutrition",
issn = "0731-5724",
publisher = "American College Of Nutrition",
number = "6 SUPPL.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Newer perspectives on calcium nutrition and bone quality

AU - Heaney, Robert P.

AU - Weaver, Connie M.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - It is now generally accepted that an adequate calcium intake is important for building and maintaining a skeleton that expresses quantitatively the full genetic program and reduces lifetime fracture risk. In this brief review we focus mainly on a new and growing body of evidence indicating a benefit of adequate calcium intake on qualitative features of the skeleton that, independent of the quantity of bone, themselves influence skeletal strength and fragility. Change in bone mass and size during growth are dependent on both calcium intake and exercise, with the largest differences being observed in prepubertal children who have both high exercise levels and high calcium intakes. Much of this benefit is expressed as increased bone diameter (and hence stiffness). Fracture risk peaks at about the time of puberty and is inversely related to bone mass. However, even prepubertally. children with low calcium intakes have been reported to have a fracture rate 2.7× that of their birth cohort. Bone remodeling triples from age 50 to 65 in typical women and is now recognized to have primarily a homeostatic basis. While remodeling improves bone strength by repairing acquired defects, homeostatic remodeling, while necessary to maintain blood calcium levels, contributes only structural weakness to bone. High calcium intakes in postmenopausal and older women reduce this homeostatic remodeling to approximately pre-menopausal values and improve bone strength immediately, well prior to any appreciable change in bone mass.

AB - It is now generally accepted that an adequate calcium intake is important for building and maintaining a skeleton that expresses quantitatively the full genetic program and reduces lifetime fracture risk. In this brief review we focus mainly on a new and growing body of evidence indicating a benefit of adequate calcium intake on qualitative features of the skeleton that, independent of the quantity of bone, themselves influence skeletal strength and fragility. Change in bone mass and size during growth are dependent on both calcium intake and exercise, with the largest differences being observed in prepubertal children who have both high exercise levels and high calcium intakes. Much of this benefit is expressed as increased bone diameter (and hence stiffness). Fracture risk peaks at about the time of puberty and is inversely related to bone mass. However, even prepubertally. children with low calcium intakes have been reported to have a fracture rate 2.7× that of their birth cohort. Bone remodeling triples from age 50 to 65 in typical women and is now recognized to have primarily a homeostatic basis. While remodeling improves bone strength by repairing acquired defects, homeostatic remodeling, while necessary to maintain blood calcium levels, contributes only structural weakness to bone. High calcium intakes in postmenopausal and older women reduce this homeostatic remodeling to approximately pre-menopausal values and improve bone strength immediately, well prior to any appreciable change in bone mass.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33644835623&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33644835623&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Review article

C2 - 16373957

AN - SCOPUS:33644835623

VL - 24

JO - Journal of the American College of Nutrition

JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition

SN - 0731-5724

IS - 6 SUPPL.

ER -