Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors: A thorough review, present status and future perspective as HIV therapeutics

Ashley D. Holec, Subhra Mandal, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Christopher J. Destache

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

5 Scopus citations


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe viral infection that has claimed approximately 658,507 lives in the US between the years 2010-2014. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has proven to inhibit HIV-1, but unlike other viral illness, not cure the infection. Objective: Among various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ARVs, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are most effective in limiting HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on NRTIs mechanism of action and metabolism. Methods: A search of PubMed (1982-2016) was performed to capture relevant articles regarding NRTI pharmacology. Results: The current classical NRTIs pharmacology for HIV-1 prevention and treatment are presented. Finally, various novel strategies are proposed to improve the efficacy of NRTIs, which will increase therapeutic efficiency of present-day HIV-1 prevention/treatment regimen. Conclusion: Use of NRTIs will continue to be critical for successful treatment and prevention of HIV-1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-421
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent HIV Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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