Nutrient effects on the calcium economy

Emphasizing the potassium controversy

Karen Rafferty, Robert P. Heaney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate- containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume138
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008

Fingerprint

Potassium
potassium
Calcium
calcium
Food
nutrients
Intestinal Absorption
Bicarbonates
Vegetables
bicarbonates
Fruit
food intake
Dietary Potassium
Nationwide Food Consumption Survey
vegetables
Diet
Dietary Calcium
balance studies
fruits
Caffeine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Nutrient effects on the calcium economy : Emphasizing the potassium controversy. / Rafferty, Karen; Heaney, Robert P.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 138, No. 1, 01.2008.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Rafferty, Karen ; Heaney, Robert P. / Nutrient effects on the calcium economy : Emphasizing the potassium controversy. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2008 ; Vol. 138, No. 1.
@article{e993bb8d6b99465ebb9138fd9509f19e,
title = "Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: Emphasizing the potassium controversy",
abstract = "The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56{\%}, and fruits and vegetables 44{\%}, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate- containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92{\%} of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.",
author = "Karen Rafferty and Heaney, {Robert P.}",
year = "2008",
month = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "138",
journal = "Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nutrient effects on the calcium economy

T2 - Emphasizing the potassium controversy

AU - Rafferty, Karen

AU - Heaney, Robert P.

PY - 2008/1

Y1 - 2008/1

N2 - The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate- containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

AB - The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate- containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=38149077187&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=38149077187&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Review article

VL - 138

JO - Journal of Nutrition

JF - Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 1

ER -