Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

H. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, A. V. Alakhverdyants, I. Alekseev, J. Alford, B. D. Anderson, C. D. Anson, D. Arkhipkin, G. S. Averichev, J. Balewski, D. R. Beavis, N. K. Behera, R. Bellwied, M. J. Betancourt, R. R. Betts, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, H. Bichsel, J. Bielcik & 354 others J. Bielcikova, B. Biritz, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, W. Borowski, J. Bouchet, E. Braidot, A. V. Brandin, A. Bridgeman, S. G. Brovko, E. Bruna, S. Bueltmann, I. Bunzarov, T. P. Burton, X. Z. Cai, H. Caines, M. Calderon, D. Cebra, R. Cendejas, M. C. Cervantes, Z. Chajecki, P. Chaloupka, S. Chattopadhyay, H. F. Chen, J. H. Chen, J. Y. Chen, L. Chen, J. Cheng, Michael G. Cherney, A. Chikanian, K. E. Choi, W. Christie, P. Chung, M. J M Codrington, R. Corliss, J. G. Cramer, H. J. Crawford, A. Davila Leyva, L. C. De Silva, R. R. Debbe, T. G. Dedovich, A. A. Derevschikov, R. Derradi De Souza, L. Didenko, P. Djawotho, S. M. Dogra, X. Dong, J. L. Drachenberg, J. E. Draper, J. C. Dunlop, L. G. Efimov, M. Elnimr, J. Engelage, G. Eppley, M. Estienne, L. Eun, O. Evdokimov, R. Fatemi, J. Fedorisin, R. G. Fersch, P. Filip, E. Finch, V. Fine, Y. Fisyak, C. A. Gagliardi, D. R. Gangadharan, F. Geurts, P. Ghosh, Y. N. Gorbunov, A. Gordon, O. G. Grebenyuk, D. Grosnick, S. M. Guertin, A. Gupta, S. Gupta, W. Guryn, B. Haag, O. Hajkova, A. Hamed, L. X. Han, J. W. Harris, J. P. Hays-Wehle, M. Heinz, S. Heppelmann, A. Hirsch, E. Hjort, G. W. Hoffmann, D. J. Hofman, B. Huang, H. Z. Huang, T. J. Humanic, L. Huo, G. Igo, P. Jacobs, W. W. Jacobs, C. Jena, F. Jin, J. Joseph, E. G. Judd, S. Kabana, K. Kang, J. Kapitan, K. Kauder, H. W. Ke, D. Keane, A. Kechechyan, D. Kettler, D. P. Kikola, J. Kiryluk, A. Kisiel, V. Kizka, S. R. Klein, A. G. Knospe, D. D. Koetke, T. Kollegger, J. Konzer, I. Koralt, L. Koroleva, W. Korsch, L. Kotchenda, V. Kouchpil, P. Kravtsov, K. Krueger, M. Krus, L. Kumar, P. Kurnadi, M. A C Lamont, J. M. Landgraf, S. Lapointe, J. Lauret, A. Lebedev, R. Lednicky, J. H. Lee, W. Leight, M. J. Levine, C. Li, L. Li, N. Li, W. Li, X. Li, X. Li, Y. Li, Z. M. Li, M. A. Lisa, F. Liu, H. Liu, J. Liu, T. Ljubicic, W. J. Llope, R. S. Longacre, W. A. Love, Y. Lu, E. V. Lukashov, X. Luo, G. L. Ma, Y. G. Ma, D. P. Mahapatra, R. Majka, O. I. Mall, R. Manweiler, S. Margetis, C. Markert, H. Masui, H. S. Matis, Yu A. Matulenko, D. McDonald, T. S. McShane, A. Meschanin, R. Milner, N. G. Minaev, S. Mioduszewski, M. K. Mitrovski, Y. Mohammed, B. Mohanty, M. M. Mondal, B. Morozov, D. A. Morozov, M. G. Munhoz, M. K. Mustafa, M. Naglis, B. K. Nandi, T. K. Nayak, P. K. Netrakanti, L. V. Nogach, S. B. Nurushev, G. Odyniec, A. Ogawa, K. Oh, A. Ohlson, V. Okorokov, E. W. Oldag, D. Olson, M. Pachr, B. S. Page, S. K. Pal, Y. Pandit, Y. Panebratsev, T. Pawlak, H. Pei, T. Peitzmann, C. Perkins, W. Peryt, P. Pile, M. Planinic, M. A. Ploskon, J. Pluta, D. Plyku, N. Poljak, J. Porter, A. M. Poskanzer, B. V K S Potukuchi, C. B. Powell, D. Prindle, C. Pruneau, N. K. Pruthi, P. R. Pujahari, J. Putschke, H. Qiu, R. Raniwala, S. Raniwala, R. L. Ray, R. Redwine, R. Reed, H. G. Ritter, J. B. Roberts, O. V. Rogachevskiy, J. L. Romero, L. Ruan, J. Rusnak, N. R. Sahoo, I. Sakrejda, S. Salur, J. Sandweiss, E. Sangaline, A. Sarkar, J. Schambach, R. P. Scharenberg, A. M. Schmah, N. Schmitz, T. R. Schuster, J. Seele, Janet E. Seger, I. Selyuzhenkov, P. Seyboth, N. Shah, E. Shahaliev, M. Shao, M. Sharma, S. S. Shi, Q. Y. Shou, E. P. Sichtermann, F. Simon, R. N. Singaraju, M. J. Skoby, N. Smirnov, D. Solanki, P. Sorensen, H. M. Spinka, B. Srivastava, T. D S Stanislaus, D. Staszak, S. G. Steadman, J. R. Stevens, R. Stock, M. Strikhanov, B. Stringfellow, A. A P Suaide, M. C. Suarez, N. L. Subba, M. Sumbera, X. M. Sun, Y. Sun, Z. Sun, B. Surrow, D. N. Svirida, T. J M Symons, A. Szanto De Toledo, J. Takahashi, A. H. Tang, Z. Tang, L. H. Tarini, T. Tarnowsky, D. Thein, J. H. Thomas, J. Tian, A. R. Timmins, D. Tlusty, M. Tokarev, T. A. Trainor, S. Trentalange, R. E. Tribble, P. Tribedy, O. D. Tsai, T. Ullrich, D. G. Underwood, G. Van Buren, G. Van Nieuwenhuizen, J. A. Vanfossen, R. Varma, G. M S Vasconcelos, A. N. Vasiliev, F. Videbaek, Y. P. Viyogi, S. Vokal, S. A. Voloshin, M. Wada, M. Walker, F. Wang, G. Wang, H. Wang, J. S. Wang, Q. Wang, X. L. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Webb, J. C. Webb, G. D. Westfall, C. W C Whitten, H. Wieman, S. W. Wissink, R. Witt, W. Witzke, Y. F. Wu, Z. Xiao, W. Xie, H. Xu, N. Xu, Q. H. Xu, W. Xu, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, L. Xue, Y. Yang, Y. Yang, P. Yepes, K. Yip, I. K. Yoo, M. Zawisza, H. Zbroszczyk, W. Zhan, J. B. Zhang, S. Zhang, W. M. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. P. Zhang, F. Zhao, J. Zhao, C. Zhong, W. Zhou, X. Zhu, Y. H. Zhu, R. Zoulkarneev, Y. Zoulkarneeva.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-(), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = '4). It has not been observed previously, although the -particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B'1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10 9 recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-356
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume473
Issue number7347
DOIs
StatePublished - May 19 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Cosmic Radiation
Helium
Gold
Elementary Particles
Observation
Nuclear Energy
Heavy Ions
Benchmarking
Particle Accelerators
Thermodynamics
Nucleons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Agakishiev, H., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alakhverdyants, A. V., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., ... Zoulkarneeva., Y. (2011). Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. Nature, 473(7347), 353-356. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10079

Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. / Agakishiev, H.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anson, C. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Beavis, D. R.; Behera, N. K.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Brovko, S. G.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, Michael G.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Codrington, M. J M; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi De Souza, R.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Geurts, F.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L. X.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kizka, V.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Koroleva, L.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A C; Landgraf, J. M.; Lapointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Lukashov, E. V.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohammed, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nayak, T. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M. A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V K S; Powell, C. B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seele, J.; Seger, Janet E.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D S; Staszak, D.; Steadman, S. G.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A P; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J M; Szanto De Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M S; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitten, C. W C; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Witzke, W.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I. K.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, W.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva., Y.

In: Nature, Vol. 473, No. 7347, 19.05.2011, p. 353-356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Agakishiev, H, Aggarwal, MM, Ahammed, Z, Alakhverdyants, AV, Alekseev, I, Alford, J, Anderson, BD, Anson, CD, Arkhipkin, D, Averichev, GS, Balewski, J, Beavis, DR, Behera, NK, Bellwied, R, Betancourt, MJ, Betts, RR, Bhasin, A, Bhati, AK, Bichsel, H, Bielcik, J, Bielcikova, J, Biritz, B, Bland, LC, Bordyuzhin, IG, Borowski, W, Bouchet, J, Braidot, E, Brandin, AV, Bridgeman, A, Brovko, SG, Bruna, E, Bueltmann, S, Bunzarov, I, Burton, TP, Cai, XZ, Caines, H, Calderon, M, Cebra, D, Cendejas, R, Cervantes, MC, Chajecki, Z, Chaloupka, P, Chattopadhyay, S, Chen, HF, Chen, JH, Chen, JY, Chen, L, Cheng, J, Cherney, MG, Chikanian, A, Choi, KE, Christie, W, Chung, P, Codrington, MJM, Corliss, R, Cramer, JG, Crawford, HJ, Davila Leyva, A, De Silva, LC, Debbe, RR, Dedovich, TG, Derevschikov, AA, Derradi De Souza, R, Didenko, L, Djawotho, P, Dogra, SM, Dong, X, Drachenberg, JL, Draper, JE, Dunlop, JC, Efimov, LG, Elnimr, M, Engelage, J, Eppley, G, Estienne, M, Eun, L, Evdokimov, O, Fatemi, R, Fedorisin, J, Fersch, RG, Filip, P, Finch, E, Fine, V, Fisyak, Y, Gagliardi, CA, Gangadharan, DR, Geurts, F, Ghosh, P, Gorbunov, YN, Gordon, A, Grebenyuk, OG, Grosnick, D, Guertin, SM, Gupta, A, Gupta, S, Guryn, W, Haag, B, Hajkova, O, Hamed, A, Han, LX, Harris, JW, Hays-Wehle, JP, Heinz, M, Heppelmann, S, Hirsch, A, Hjort, E, Hoffmann, GW, Hofman, DJ, Huang, B, Huang, HZ, Humanic, TJ, Huo, L, Igo, G, Jacobs, P, Jacobs, WW, Jena, C, Jin, F, Joseph, J, Judd, EG, Kabana, S, Kang, K, Kapitan, J, Kauder, K, Ke, HW, Keane, D, Kechechyan, A, Kettler, D, Kikola, DP, Kiryluk, J, Kisiel, A, Kizka, V, Klein, SR, Knospe, AG, Koetke, DD, Kollegger, T, Konzer, J, Koralt, I, Koroleva, L, Korsch, W, Kotchenda, L, Kouchpil, V, Kravtsov, P, Krueger, K, Krus, M, Kumar, L, Kurnadi, P, Lamont, MAC, Landgraf, JM, Lapointe, S, Lauret, J, Lebedev, A, Lednicky, R, Lee, JH, Leight, W, Levine, MJ, Li, C, Li, L, Li, N, Li, W, Li, X, Li, X, Li, Y, Li, ZM, Lisa, MA, Liu, F, Liu, H, Liu, J, Ljubicic, T, Llope, WJ, Longacre, RS, Love, WA, Lu, Y, Lukashov, EV, Luo, X, Ma, GL, Ma, YG, Mahapatra, DP, Majka, R, Mall, OI, Manweiler, R, Margetis, S, Markert, C, Masui, H, Matis, HS, Matulenko, YA, McDonald, D, McShane, TS, Meschanin, A, Milner, R, Minaev, NG, Mioduszewski, S, Mitrovski, MK, Mohammed, Y, Mohanty, B, Mondal, MM, Morozov, B, Morozov, DA, Munhoz, MG, Mustafa, MK, Naglis, M, Nandi, BK, Nayak, TK, Netrakanti, PK, Nogach, LV, Nurushev, SB, Odyniec, G, Ogawa, A, Oh, K, Ohlson, A, Okorokov, V, Oldag, EW, Olson, D, Pachr, M, Page, BS, Pal, SK, Pandit, Y, Panebratsev, Y, Pawlak, T, Pei, H, Peitzmann, T, Perkins, C, Peryt, W, Pile, P, Planinic, M, Ploskon, MA, Pluta, J, Plyku, D, Poljak, N, Porter, J, Poskanzer, AM, Potukuchi, BVKS, Powell, CB, Prindle, D, Pruneau, C, Pruthi, NK, Pujahari, PR, Putschke, J, Qiu, H, Raniwala, R, Raniwala, S, Ray, RL, Redwine, R, Reed, R, Ritter, HG, Roberts, JB, Rogachevskiy, OV, Romero, JL, Ruan, L, Rusnak, J, Sahoo, NR, Sakrejda, I, Salur, S, Sandweiss, J, Sangaline, E, Sarkar, A, Schambach, J, Scharenberg, RP, Schmah, AM, Schmitz, N, Schuster, TR, Seele, J, Seger, JE, Selyuzhenkov, I, Seyboth, P, Shah, N, Shahaliev, E, Shao, M, Sharma, M, Shi, SS, Shou, QY, Sichtermann, EP, Simon, F, Singaraju, RN, Skoby, MJ, Smirnov, N, Solanki, D, Sorensen, P, Spinka, HM, Srivastava, B, Stanislaus, TDS, Staszak, D, Steadman, SG, Stevens, JR, Stock, R, Strikhanov, M, Stringfellow, B, Suaide, AAP, Suarez, MC, Subba, NL, Sumbera, M, Sun, XM, Sun, Y, Sun, Z, Surrow, B, Svirida, DN, Symons, TJM, Szanto De Toledo, A, Takahashi, J, Tang, AH, Tang, Z, Tarini, LH, Tarnowsky, T, Thein, D, Thomas, JH, Tian, J, Timmins, AR, Tlusty, D, Tokarev, M, Trainor, TA, Trentalange, S, Tribble, RE, Tribedy, P, Tsai, OD, Ullrich, T, Underwood, DG, Van Buren, G, Van Nieuwenhuizen, G, Vanfossen, JA, Varma, R, Vasconcelos, GMS, Vasiliev, AN, Videbaek, F, Viyogi, YP, Vokal, S, Voloshin, SA, Wada, M, Walker, M, Wang, F, Wang, G, Wang, H, Wang, JS, Wang, Q, Wang, XL, Wang, Y, Webb, G, Webb, JC, Westfall, GD, Whitten, CWC, Wieman, H, Wissink, SW, Witt, R, Witzke, W, Wu, YF, Xiao, Z, Xie, W, Xu, H, Xu, N, Xu, QH, Xu, W, Xu, Y, Xu, Z, Xue, L, Yang, Y, Yang, Y, Yepes, P, Yip, K, Yoo, IK, Zawisza, M, Zbroszczyk, H, Zhan, W, Zhang, JB, Zhang, S, Zhang, WM, Zhang, XP, Zhang, Y, Zhang, ZP, Zhao, F, Zhao, J, Zhong, C, Zhou, W, Zhu, X, Zhu, YH, Zoulkarneev, R & Zoulkarneeva., Y 2011, 'Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus', Nature, vol. 473, no. 7347, pp. 353-356. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10079
Agakishiev H, Aggarwal MM, Ahammed Z, Alakhverdyants AV, Alekseev I, Alford J et al. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. Nature. 2011 May 19;473(7347):353-356. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10079
Agakishiev, H. ; Aggarwal, M. M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; Alakhverdyants, A. V. ; Alekseev, I. ; Alford, J. ; Anderson, B. D. ; Anson, C. D. ; Arkhipkin, D. ; Averichev, G. S. ; Balewski, J. ; Beavis, D. R. ; Behera, N. K. ; Bellwied, R. ; Betancourt, M. J. ; Betts, R. R. ; Bhasin, A. ; Bhati, A. K. ; Bichsel, H. ; Bielcik, J. ; Bielcikova, J. ; Biritz, B. ; Bland, L. C. ; Bordyuzhin, I. G. ; Borowski, W. ; Bouchet, J. ; Braidot, E. ; Brandin, A. V. ; Bridgeman, A. ; Brovko, S. G. ; Bruna, E. ; Bueltmann, S. ; Bunzarov, I. ; Burton, T. P. ; Cai, X. Z. ; Caines, H. ; Calderon, M. ; Cebra, D. ; Cendejas, R. ; Cervantes, M. C. ; Chajecki, Z. ; Chaloupka, P. ; Chattopadhyay, S. ; Chen, H. F. ; Chen, J. H. ; Chen, J. Y. ; Chen, L. ; Cheng, J. ; Cherney, Michael G. ; Chikanian, A. ; Choi, K. E. ; Christie, W. ; Chung, P. ; Codrington, M. J M ; Corliss, R. ; Cramer, J. G. ; Crawford, H. J. ; Davila Leyva, A. ; De Silva, L. C. ; Debbe, R. R. ; Dedovich, T. G. ; Derevschikov, A. A. ; Derradi De Souza, R. ; Didenko, L. ; Djawotho, P. ; Dogra, S. M. ; Dong, X. ; Drachenberg, J. L. ; Draper, J. E. ; Dunlop, J. C. ; Efimov, L. G. ; Elnimr, M. ; Engelage, J. ; Eppley, G. ; Estienne, M. ; Eun, L. ; Evdokimov, O. ; Fatemi, R. ; Fedorisin, J. ; Fersch, R. G. ; Filip, P. ; Finch, E. ; Fine, V. ; Fisyak, Y. ; Gagliardi, C. A. ; Gangadharan, D. R. ; Geurts, F. ; Ghosh, P. ; Gorbunov, Y. N. ; Gordon, A. ; Grebenyuk, O. G. ; Grosnick, D. ; Guertin, S. M. ; Gupta, A. ; Gupta, S. ; Guryn, W. ; Haag, B. ; Hajkova, O. ; Hamed, A. ; Han, L. X. ; Harris, J. W. ; Hays-Wehle, J. P. ; Heinz, M. ; Heppelmann, S. ; Hirsch, A. ; Hjort, E. ; Hoffmann, G. W. ; Hofman, D. J. ; Huang, B. ; Huang, H. Z. ; Humanic, T. J. ; Huo, L. ; Igo, G. ; Jacobs, P. ; Jacobs, W. W. ; Jena, C. ; Jin, F. ; Joseph, J. ; Judd, E. G. ; Kabana, S. ; Kang, K. ; Kapitan, J. ; Kauder, K. ; Ke, H. W. ; Keane, D. ; Kechechyan, A. ; Kettler, D. ; Kikola, D. P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kisiel, A. ; Kizka, V. ; Klein, S. R. ; Knospe, A. G. ; Koetke, D. D. ; Kollegger, T. ; Konzer, J. ; Koralt, I. ; Koroleva, L. ; Korsch, W. ; Kotchenda, L. ; Kouchpil, V. ; Kravtsov, P. ; Krueger, K. ; Krus, M. ; Kumar, L. ; Kurnadi, P. ; Lamont, M. A C ; Landgraf, J. M. ; Lapointe, S. ; Lauret, J. ; Lebedev, A. ; Lednicky, R. ; Lee, J. H. ; Leight, W. ; Levine, M. J. ; Li, C. ; Li, L. ; Li, N. ; Li, W. ; Li, X. ; Li, X. ; Li, Y. ; Li, Z. M. ; Lisa, M. A. ; Liu, F. ; Liu, H. ; Liu, J. ; Ljubicic, T. ; Llope, W. J. ; Longacre, R. S. ; Love, W. A. ; Lu, Y. ; Lukashov, E. V. ; Luo, X. ; Ma, G. L. ; Ma, Y. G. ; Mahapatra, D. P. ; Majka, R. ; Mall, O. I. ; Manweiler, R. ; Margetis, S. ; Markert, C. ; Masui, H. ; Matis, H. S. ; Matulenko, Yu A. ; McDonald, D. ; McShane, T. S. ; Meschanin, A. ; Milner, R. ; Minaev, N. G. ; Mioduszewski, S. ; Mitrovski, M. K. ; Mohammed, Y. ; Mohanty, B. ; Mondal, M. M. ; Morozov, B. ; Morozov, D. A. ; Munhoz, M. G. ; Mustafa, M. K. ; Naglis, M. ; Nandi, B. K. ; Nayak, T. K. ; Netrakanti, P. K. ; Nogach, L. V. ; Nurushev, S. B. ; Odyniec, G. ; Ogawa, A. ; Oh, K. ; Ohlson, A. ; Okorokov, V. ; Oldag, E. W. ; Olson, D. ; Pachr, M. ; Page, B. S. ; Pal, S. K. ; Pandit, Y. ; Panebratsev, Y. ; Pawlak, T. ; Pei, H. ; Peitzmann, T. ; Perkins, C. ; Peryt, W. ; Pile, P. ; Planinic, M. ; Ploskon, M. A. ; Pluta, J. ; Plyku, D. ; Poljak, N. ; Porter, J. ; Poskanzer, A. M. ; Potukuchi, B. V K S ; Powell, C. B. ; Prindle, D. ; Pruneau, C. ; Pruthi, N. K. ; Pujahari, P. R. ; Putschke, J. ; Qiu, H. ; Raniwala, R. ; Raniwala, S. ; Ray, R. L. ; Redwine, R. ; Reed, R. ; Ritter, H. G. ; Roberts, J. B. ; Rogachevskiy, O. V. ; Romero, J. L. ; Ruan, L. ; Rusnak, J. ; Sahoo, N. R. ; Sakrejda, I. ; Salur, S. ; Sandweiss, J. ; Sangaline, E. ; Sarkar, A. ; Schambach, J. ; Scharenberg, R. P. ; Schmah, A. M. ; Schmitz, N. ; Schuster, T. R. ; Seele, J. ; Seger, Janet E. ; Selyuzhenkov, I. ; Seyboth, P. ; Shah, N. ; Shahaliev, E. ; Shao, M. ; Sharma, M. ; Shi, S. S. ; Shou, Q. Y. ; Sichtermann, E. P. ; Simon, F. ; Singaraju, R. N. ; Skoby, M. J. ; Smirnov, N. ; Solanki, D. ; Sorensen, P. ; Spinka, H. M. ; Srivastava, B. ; Stanislaus, T. D S ; Staszak, D. ; Steadman, S. G. ; Stevens, J. R. ; Stock, R. ; Strikhanov, M. ; Stringfellow, B. ; Suaide, A. A P ; Suarez, M. C. ; Subba, N. L. ; Sumbera, M. ; Sun, X. M. ; Sun, Y. ; Sun, Z. ; Surrow, B. ; Svirida, D. N. ; Symons, T. J M ; Szanto De Toledo, A. ; Takahashi, J. ; Tang, A. H. ; Tang, Z. ; Tarini, L. H. ; Tarnowsky, T. ; Thein, D. ; Thomas, J. H. ; Tian, J. ; Timmins, A. R. ; Tlusty, D. ; Tokarev, M. ; Trainor, T. A. ; Trentalange, S. ; Tribble, R. E. ; Tribedy, P. ; Tsai, O. D. ; Ullrich, T. ; Underwood, D. G. ; Van Buren, G. ; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G. ; Vanfossen, J. A. ; Varma, R. ; Vasconcelos, G. M S ; Vasiliev, A. N. ; Videbaek, F. ; Viyogi, Y. P. ; Vokal, S. ; Voloshin, S. A. ; Wada, M. ; Walker, M. ; Wang, F. ; Wang, G. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, J. S. ; Wang, Q. ; Wang, X. L. ; Wang, Y. ; Webb, G. ; Webb, J. C. ; Westfall, G. D. ; Whitten, C. W C ; Wieman, H. ; Wissink, S. W. ; Witt, R. ; Witzke, W. ; Wu, Y. F. ; Xiao, Z. ; Xie, W. ; Xu, H. ; Xu, N. ; Xu, Q. H. ; Xu, W. ; Xu, Y. ; Xu, Z. ; Xue, L. ; Yang, Y. ; Yang, Y. ; Yepes, P. ; Yip, K. ; Yoo, I. K. ; Zawisza, M. ; Zbroszczyk, H. ; Zhan, W. ; Zhang, J. B. ; Zhang, S. ; Zhang, W. M. ; Zhang, X. P. ; Zhang, Y. ; Zhang, Z. P. ; Zhao, F. ; Zhao, J. ; Zhong, C. ; Zhou, W. ; Zhu, X. ; Zhu, Y. H. ; Zoulkarneev, R. ; Zoulkarneeva., Y. / Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. In: Nature. 2011 ; Vol. 473, No. 7347. pp. 353-356.
@article{39d2505a61c74ec1888bd4e07ad634ad,
title = "Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus",
abstract = "High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-(), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = '4). It has not been observed previously, although the -particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B'1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10 9 recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation.",
author = "H. Agakishiev and Aggarwal, {M. M.} and Z. Ahammed and Alakhverdyants, {A. V.} and I. Alekseev and J. Alford and Anderson, {B. D.} and Anson, {C. D.} and D. Arkhipkin and Averichev, {G. S.} and J. Balewski and Beavis, {D. R.} and Behera, {N. K.} and R. Bellwied and Betancourt, {M. J.} and Betts, {R. R.} and A. Bhasin and Bhati, {A. K.} and H. Bichsel and J. Bielcik and J. Bielcikova and B. Biritz and Bland, {L. C.} and Bordyuzhin, {I. G.} and W. Borowski and J. Bouchet and E. Braidot and Brandin, {A. V.} and A. Bridgeman and Brovko, {S. G.} and E. Bruna and S. Bueltmann and I. Bunzarov and Burton, {T. P.} and Cai, {X. Z.} and H. Caines and M. Calderon and D. Cebra and R. Cendejas and Cervantes, {M. C.} and Z. Chajecki and P. Chaloupka and S. Chattopadhyay and Chen, {H. F.} and Chen, {J. H.} and Chen, {J. Y.} and L. Chen and J. Cheng and Cherney, {Michael G.} and A. Chikanian and Choi, {K. E.} and W. Christie and P. Chung and Codrington, {M. J M} and R. Corliss and Cramer, {J. G.} and Crawford, {H. J.} and {Davila Leyva}, A. and {De Silva}, {L. C.} and Debbe, {R. R.} and Dedovich, {T. G.} and Derevschikov, {A. A.} and {Derradi De Souza}, R. and L. Didenko and P. Djawotho and Dogra, {S. M.} and X. Dong and Drachenberg, {J. L.} and Draper, {J. E.} and Dunlop, {J. C.} and Efimov, {L. G.} and M. Elnimr and J. Engelage and G. Eppley and M. Estienne and L. Eun and O. Evdokimov and R. Fatemi and J. Fedorisin and Fersch, {R. G.} and P. Filip and E. Finch and V. Fine and Y. Fisyak and Gagliardi, {C. A.} and Gangadharan, {D. R.} and F. Geurts and P. Ghosh and Gorbunov, {Y. N.} and A. Gordon and Grebenyuk, {O. G.} and D. Grosnick and Guertin, {S. M.} and A. Gupta and S. Gupta and W. Guryn and B. Haag and O. Hajkova and A. Hamed and Han, {L. X.} and Harris, {J. W.} and Hays-Wehle, {J. P.} and M. Heinz and S. Heppelmann and A. Hirsch and E. Hjort and Hoffmann, {G. W.} and Hofman, {D. J.} and B. Huang and Huang, {H. Z.} and Humanic, {T. J.} and L. Huo and G. Igo and P. Jacobs and Jacobs, {W. W.} and C. Jena and F. Jin and J. Joseph and Judd, {E. G.} and S. Kabana and K. Kang and J. Kapitan and K. Kauder and Ke, {H. W.} and D. Keane and A. Kechechyan and D. Kettler and Kikola, {D. P.} and J. Kiryluk and A. Kisiel and V. Kizka and Klein, {S. R.} and Knospe, {A. G.} and Koetke, {D. D.} and T. Kollegger and J. Konzer and I. Koralt and L. Koroleva and W. Korsch and L. Kotchenda and V. Kouchpil and P. Kravtsov and K. Krueger and M. Krus and L. Kumar and P. Kurnadi and Lamont, {M. A C} and Landgraf, {J. M.} and S. Lapointe and J. Lauret and A. Lebedev and R. Lednicky and Lee, {J. H.} and W. Leight and Levine, {M. J.} and C. Li and L. Li and N. Li and W. Li and X. Li and X. Li and Y. Li and Li, {Z. M.} and Lisa, {M. A.} and F. Liu and H. Liu and J. Liu and T. Ljubicic and Llope, {W. J.} and Longacre, {R. S.} and Love, {W. A.} and Y. Lu and Lukashov, {E. V.} and X. Luo and Ma, {G. L.} and Ma, {Y. G.} and Mahapatra, {D. P.} and R. Majka and Mall, {O. I.} and R. Manweiler and S. Margetis and C. Markert and H. Masui and Matis, {H. S.} and Matulenko, {Yu A.} and D. McDonald and McShane, {T. S.} and A. Meschanin and R. Milner and Minaev, {N. G.} and S. Mioduszewski and Mitrovski, {M. K.} and Y. Mohammed and B. Mohanty and Mondal, {M. M.} and B. Morozov and Morozov, {D. A.} and Munhoz, {M. G.} and Mustafa, {M. K.} and M. Naglis and Nandi, {B. K.} and Nayak, {T. K.} and Netrakanti, {P. K.} and Nogach, {L. V.} and Nurushev, {S. B.} and G. Odyniec and A. Ogawa and K. Oh and A. Ohlson and V. Okorokov and Oldag, {E. W.} and D. Olson and M. Pachr and Page, {B. S.} and Pal, {S. K.} and Y. Pandit and Y. Panebratsev and T. Pawlak and H. Pei and T. Peitzmann and C. Perkins and W. Peryt and P. Pile and M. Planinic and Ploskon, {M. A.} and J. Pluta and D. Plyku and N. Poljak and J. Porter and Poskanzer, {A. M.} and Potukuchi, {B. V K S} and Powell, {C. B.} and D. Prindle and C. Pruneau and Pruthi, {N. K.} and Pujahari, {P. R.} and J. Putschke and H. Qiu and R. Raniwala and S. Raniwala and Ray, {R. L.} and R. Redwine and R. Reed and Ritter, {H. G.} and Roberts, {J. B.} and Rogachevskiy, {O. V.} and Romero, {J. L.} and L. Ruan and J. Rusnak and Sahoo, {N. R.} and I. Sakrejda and S. Salur and J. Sandweiss and E. Sangaline and A. Sarkar and J. Schambach and Scharenberg, {R. P.} and Schmah, {A. M.} and N. Schmitz and Schuster, {T. R.} and J. Seele and Seger, {Janet E.} and I. Selyuzhenkov and P. Seyboth and N. Shah and E. Shahaliev and M. Shao and M. Sharma and Shi, {S. S.} and Shou, {Q. Y.} and Sichtermann, {E. P.} and F. Simon and Singaraju, {R. N.} and Skoby, {M. J.} and N. Smirnov and D. Solanki and P. Sorensen and Spinka, {H. M.} and B. Srivastava and Stanislaus, {T. D S} and D. Staszak and Steadman, {S. G.} and Stevens, {J. R.} and R. Stock and M. Strikhanov and B. Stringfellow and Suaide, {A. A P} and Suarez, {M. C.} and Subba, {N. L.} and M. Sumbera and Sun, {X. M.} and Y. Sun and Z. Sun and B. Surrow and Svirida, {D. N.} and Symons, {T. J M} and {Szanto De Toledo}, A. and J. Takahashi and Tang, {A. H.} and Z. Tang and Tarini, {L. H.} and T. Tarnowsky and D. Thein and Thomas, {J. H.} and J. Tian and Timmins, {A. R.} and D. Tlusty and M. Tokarev and Trainor, {T. A.} and S. Trentalange and Tribble, {R. E.} and P. Tribedy and Tsai, {O. D.} and T. Ullrich and Underwood, {D. G.} and {Van Buren}, G. and {Van Nieuwenhuizen}, G. and Vanfossen, {J. A.} and R. Varma and Vasconcelos, {G. M S} and Vasiliev, {A. N.} and F. Videbaek and Viyogi, {Y. P.} and S. Vokal and Voloshin, {S. A.} and M. Wada and M. Walker and F. Wang and G. Wang and H. Wang and Wang, {J. S.} and Q. Wang and Wang, {X. L.} and Y. Wang and G. Webb and Webb, {J. C.} and Westfall, {G. D.} and Whitten, {C. W C} and H. Wieman and Wissink, {S. W.} and R. Witt and W. Witzke and Wu, {Y. F.} and Z. Xiao and W. Xie and H. Xu and N. Xu and Xu, {Q. H.} and W. Xu and Y. Xu and Z. Xu and L. Xue and Y. Yang and Y. Yang and P. Yepes and K. Yip and Yoo, {I. K.} and M. Zawisza and H. Zbroszczyk and W. Zhan and Zhang, {J. B.} and S. Zhang and Zhang, {W. M.} and Zhang, {X. P.} and Y. Zhang and Zhang, {Z. P.} and F. Zhao and J. Zhao and C. Zhong and W. Zhou and X. Zhu and Zhu, {Y. H.} and R. Zoulkarneev and Y. Zoulkarneeva.",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1038/nature10079",
language = "English",
volume = "473",
pages = "353--356",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7347",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

AU - Agakishiev, H.

AU - Aggarwal, M. M.

AU - Ahammed, Z.

AU - Alakhverdyants, A. V.

AU - Alekseev, I.

AU - Alford, J.

AU - Anderson, B. D.

AU - Anson, C. D.

AU - Arkhipkin, D.

AU - Averichev, G. S.

AU - Balewski, J.

AU - Beavis, D. R.

AU - Behera, N. K.

AU - Bellwied, R.

AU - Betancourt, M. J.

AU - Betts, R. R.

AU - Bhasin, A.

AU - Bhati, A. K.

AU - Bichsel, H.

AU - Bielcik, J.

AU - Bielcikova, J.

AU - Biritz, B.

AU - Bland, L. C.

AU - Bordyuzhin, I. G.

AU - Borowski, W.

AU - Bouchet, J.

AU - Braidot, E.

AU - Brandin, A. V.

AU - Bridgeman, A.

AU - Brovko, S. G.

AU - Bruna, E.

AU - Bueltmann, S.

AU - Bunzarov, I.

AU - Burton, T. P.

AU - Cai, X. Z.

AU - Caines, H.

AU - Calderon, M.

AU - Cebra, D.

AU - Cendejas, R.

AU - Cervantes, M. C.

AU - Chajecki, Z.

AU - Chaloupka, P.

AU - Chattopadhyay, S.

AU - Chen, H. F.

AU - Chen, J. H.

AU - Chen, J. Y.

AU - Chen, L.

AU - Cheng, J.

AU - Cherney, Michael G.

AU - Chikanian, A.

AU - Choi, K. E.

AU - Christie, W.

AU - Chung, P.

AU - Codrington, M. J M

AU - Corliss, R.

AU - Cramer, J. G.

AU - Crawford, H. J.

AU - Davila Leyva, A.

AU - De Silva, L. C.

AU - Debbe, R. R.

AU - Dedovich, T. G.

AU - Derevschikov, A. A.

AU - Derradi De Souza, R.

AU - Didenko, L.

AU - Djawotho, P.

AU - Dogra, S. M.

AU - Dong, X.

AU - Drachenberg, J. L.

AU - Draper, J. E.

AU - Dunlop, J. C.

AU - Efimov, L. G.

AU - Elnimr, M.

AU - Engelage, J.

AU - Eppley, G.

AU - Estienne, M.

AU - Eun, L.

AU - Evdokimov, O.

AU - Fatemi, R.

AU - Fedorisin, J.

AU - Fersch, R. G.

AU - Filip, P.

AU - Finch, E.

AU - Fine, V.

AU - Fisyak, Y.

AU - Gagliardi, C. A.

AU - Gangadharan, D. R.

AU - Geurts, F.

AU - Ghosh, P.

AU - Gorbunov, Y. N.

AU - Gordon, A.

AU - Grebenyuk, O. G.

AU - Grosnick, D.

AU - Guertin, S. M.

AU - Gupta, A.

AU - Gupta, S.

AU - Guryn, W.

AU - Haag, B.

AU - Hajkova, O.

AU - Hamed, A.

AU - Han, L. X.

AU - Harris, J. W.

AU - Hays-Wehle, J. P.

AU - Heinz, M.

AU - Heppelmann, S.

AU - Hirsch, A.

AU - Hjort, E.

AU - Hoffmann, G. W.

AU - Hofman, D. J.

AU - Huang, B.

AU - Huang, H. Z.

AU - Humanic, T. J.

AU - Huo, L.

AU - Igo, G.

AU - Jacobs, P.

AU - Jacobs, W. W.

AU - Jena, C.

AU - Jin, F.

AU - Joseph, J.

AU - Judd, E. G.

AU - Kabana, S.

AU - Kang, K.

AU - Kapitan, J.

AU - Kauder, K.

AU - Ke, H. W.

AU - Keane, D.

AU - Kechechyan, A.

AU - Kettler, D.

AU - Kikola, D. P.

AU - Kiryluk, J.

AU - Kisiel, A.

AU - Kizka, V.

AU - Klein, S. R.

AU - Knospe, A. G.

AU - Koetke, D. D.

AU - Kollegger, T.

AU - Konzer, J.

AU - Koralt, I.

AU - Koroleva, L.

AU - Korsch, W.

AU - Kotchenda, L.

AU - Kouchpil, V.

AU - Kravtsov, P.

AU - Krueger, K.

AU - Krus, M.

AU - Kumar, L.

AU - Kurnadi, P.

AU - Lamont, M. A C

AU - Landgraf, J. M.

AU - Lapointe, S.

AU - Lauret, J.

AU - Lebedev, A.

AU - Lednicky, R.

AU - Lee, J. H.

AU - Leight, W.

AU - Levine, M. J.

AU - Li, C.

AU - Li, L.

AU - Li, N.

AU - Li, W.

AU - Li, X.

AU - Li, X.

AU - Li, Y.

AU - Li, Z. M.

AU - Lisa, M. A.

AU - Liu, F.

AU - Liu, H.

AU - Liu, J.

AU - Ljubicic, T.

AU - Llope, W. J.

AU - Longacre, R. S.

AU - Love, W. A.

AU - Lu, Y.

AU - Lukashov, E. V.

AU - Luo, X.

AU - Ma, G. L.

AU - Ma, Y. G.

AU - Mahapatra, D. P.

AU - Majka, R.

AU - Mall, O. I.

AU - Manweiler, R.

AU - Margetis, S.

AU - Markert, C.

AU - Masui, H.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - Matulenko, Yu A.

AU - McDonald, D.

AU - McShane, T. S.

AU - Meschanin, A.

AU - Milner, R.

AU - Minaev, N. G.

AU - Mioduszewski, S.

AU - Mitrovski, M. K.

AU - Mohammed, Y.

AU - Mohanty, B.

AU - Mondal, M. M.

AU - Morozov, B.

AU - Morozov, D. A.

AU - Munhoz, M. G.

AU - Mustafa, M. K.

AU - Naglis, M.

AU - Nandi, B. K.

AU - Nayak, T. K.

AU - Netrakanti, P. K.

AU - Nogach, L. V.

AU - Nurushev, S. B.

AU - Odyniec, G.

AU - Ogawa, A.

AU - Oh, K.

AU - Ohlson, A.

AU - Okorokov, V.

AU - Oldag, E. W.

AU - Olson, D.

AU - Pachr, M.

AU - Page, B. S.

AU - Pal, S. K.

AU - Pandit, Y.

AU - Panebratsev, Y.

AU - Pawlak, T.

AU - Pei, H.

AU - Peitzmann, T.

AU - Perkins, C.

AU - Peryt, W.

AU - Pile, P.

AU - Planinic, M.

AU - Ploskon, M. A.

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PY - 2011/5/19

Y1 - 2011/5/19

N2 - High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-(), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = '4). It has not been observed previously, although the -particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B'1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10 9 recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation.

AB - High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-(), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = '4). It has not been observed previously, although the -particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B'1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of, the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10 9 recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79956303213&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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U2 - 10.1038/nature10079

DO - 10.1038/nature10079

M3 - Article

VL - 473

SP - 353

EP - 356

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7347

ER -