Despite the discovery of novel β-lactamases such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), imported AmpC, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases at least a decade ago, there remains a low level of awareness of their importance and how to detect them. There is a need to increase the levels of awareness of clinical laboratories about the detection of newer β-lactamases. Therefore, a study was conducted in 2000 to investigate the occurrence of these β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates at 24 U.S. medical centers. To enhance the likelihood of detecting imported AmpC and carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases, participating laboratories were permitted to include archived strains (1996 to 2000) that were intermediate or resistant to either cefoxitin or imipenem. The β-lactamase production of 408 isolates positive by screening of 1,123 isolates was investigated by ESBL phenotypic confirmation tests; and for AmpC and carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases, three-dimensional tests, isoelectric focusing, β-lactamase inhibitor studies, spectrophotometric assays, induction assays, and molecular tests were used. ESBL-producing isolates were detected at 18 of the 24 sites (75%), imported AmpC-producing isolates were detected at 10 sites (42%), inducible imported AmpC-producing isolates were detected at 3 sites (12.5%), and a molecular class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme was detected at 1 site (4%). No class B or D carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were detected. ESBLs and imported AmpC β-lactamases were detected at a significant number of sites, indicating widespread penetration of these enzymes into U.S. medical institutions. Because these enzymes may significantly affect therapeutic outcomes, it is vital that clinical laboratories be aware of them and be able to detect their occurrence.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases