Pathophysiology of hypertension: Chronic and acute

Daniel E. Hilleman, J. D. Lynch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hypertension is a heterogenous disorder resulting from either a specific cause (secondary hypertension) or some underlying pathophysiologic alteration(s) of unknown etiology (primary hypertension). In some young hypertensive patients, elevated cardiac output may be the primary pathophysiologic derangement. In most patients with established hypertension, the primary pathophysiologic alteration is elevated peripheral vascular resistance with a normal cardiac output. Explanations for the increased vascular resistance in hypertension include derangements in the central and autonomic nervous systems, renal or endocrine systems, cellular membrane or neurohumoral function, and structural vascular changes. No unifying pathophysiologic explanation can be identified as causative of primary hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-528
Number of pages22
JournalAnesthesiology Clinics of North America
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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