Annual gains in BMC and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children vary with age, pubertal status, height-velocity, and lean body mass accrual (LBM velocity). Evaluating bone accrual in children with bone health-threatening conditions requires consideration of these determinants. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for calculating BMC/aBMD velocity SD scores (velocity-Z) and to evaluate bone accrual in youth with health conditions. Bone and body compositions via DXA were obtained for up to six annual intervals in healthy youth (n = 2014) enrolled in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS). Longitudinal statistical methods were used to develop sex- and pubertal-status-specific reference equations for calculating velocity-Z for total body less head-BMC and lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TotHip), femoral neck, and 1/3-radius aBMD. Equations accounted for (1) height velocity, (2) height velocity and weight velocity, or (3) height velocity and LBM velocity. These equations were then applied to observational, single-center, 12-month longitudinal data from youth with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 65), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors (n = 45), or Crohn disease (CD) initiating infliximab (n = 72). Associations between BMC/aBMD-Z change (conventional pediatric bone health monitoring method) and BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were assessed. The BMC/aBMD velocity-Z for CF, ALL, and CD was compared with BMDCS. Annual changes in the BMC/aBMD-Z and the BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were strongly correlated, but not equivalent; LS aBMD-Z = 1 equated with LS aBMD velocity-Z = −3. In CF, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was normal. In posttherapy ALL, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased, particularly at TotHip (1.01 [-.047; 1.7], p < 0.0001). In CD, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased at all skeletal sites. LBM-velocity adjustment attenuated these increases (eg, TotHip aBMD velocity-Z: 1.13 [0.004; 2.34] versus 1.52 [0.3; 2.85], p < 0.0001). Methods for quantifying the BMC/aBMD velocity that account for maturation and body composition changes provide a framework for evaluating childhood bone accretion and may provide insight into mechanisms contributing to altered accrual in chronic childhood conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine